îagûara

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Old Tupi

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îagûara (sense 1)
îagûara (sense 2)

Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Tupi-Guarani *jawar.

Cognate with Guaraní jagua.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [jaˈɡʷa.ɾa]
  • Rhymes: -aɾa
  • Hyphenation: îa‧gûa‧ra

Noun

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îagûara (unpossessable)

  1. jaguar (Panthera onca)[1]
    Synonyms: îagûarakangusu, îagûareté, îagûarusu
    • c. 1628, Luís Figueira, “De algũas dições, que ſos per ſi não ſignificão; mas juntas a outras parstes da oração, lhe dão ſentido differente”, in Arte da lingua Braſilica [Art of the Brazilian language]‎[2] (overall work in Portuguese), Lisbon: Manoel da Silva, page 79v:
      Ajucancar iaguara Pedro çupe []
      [Aîukaukar îagûara Pedro supé [] ]
      I compelled Pedro to kill the jaguar.
  2. (Late Tupi) dog (Canis familiaris)[2]
    Synonyms: îagûamimbaba, eŷmbaba îagûara
  3. (broadly) any carnivoran
    îagûapopebariver otter (literally, “flat-footed jaguar”)
  4. (hapax, astronomy) Mars[3]

Usage notes

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  • With the advent of colonization, Tupians used the names of similar native animals to call the unknown species brought by the Europeans. Neologisms were then created by using eté (true) and eŷmbabamimbaba (domestic animal) as a form to differentiate the old and new species, respectively.
  • By d'Abbeville's description of a bright red star that follows the Moon, it has been guessed he refered to Mars. Rodolfo Garcia sugests it was Venus in his translation to Portuguese, but his work has many omitted parts from the original and misunderstandings involving both Old Tupi and astronomy.[4]

Coordinate terms

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Descendants

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  • Nheengatu: yawara
  • Portuguese: jaguara

References

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  1. ^ anonymous author (1622) “Onça, ou tigre”, in Vocabulario na lingoa Braſilica (overall work in Portuguese), Piratininga; republished as Carlos Drummond, editor, Vocabulário na Língua Brasílica, 2nd edition, volume 2, São Paulo: USP, 1953, page 56:Iaguara [Îagûara]
  2. ^ anonymous author (1622) “Cão, animal”, in Vocabulario na lingoa Braſilica (overall work in Portuguese), Piratininga; republished as Carlos Drummond, editor, Vocabulário na Língua Brasílica, 2nd edition, volume 1, São Paulo: USP, 1953, page 65:Jagoara [Îagûara]
  3. ^ Claude d'Abbeville (1614) chapter LI, in Hiſtoire de la Miſsion des Peres Capucins en L’Iſle de Maragnan et terres circonuoiſines [History of the Mission of the Capuchin Fathers in the Island of Maranhão and surrounding lands] (overall work in French), Paris: Imprimerie de François Huby, page 317:Iaouare [Îaûara]
  4. ^ Flávia Pedroza Lima, Ildeu de Castro Moreira (2005) “Tradições astronômicas tupinambás na visão de Claude D’Abbeville”, in Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de História da Ciência[1] (in Portuguese), volume 3, number 1, Rio de Janeiro, page 11