Possibly from Proto-Hellenic *kusun, of uncertain origin. Younger form of Homeric and Old Attic ξύν (xún), Mycenaean Greek 𐀓𐀱 (ku-su). These probably reflect Proto-Indo-European *som- < *sem- (“one, together”) contaminated with the ḱ of *ḱóm (“beside, with”) along with a conflation of their meanings. A derivation from *som- alone is impossible, since the *s- would be expected to give h- (aspiration); neither is the ks- explainable from *ḱóm alone. The -u- is in line with the Pre-Greek shift of PIE *o > u before resonants, as in μύλη (múlē) (Cowgill's law).
- In compounds it has similar applications, including completeness, simultaneity.
- Greek: συν (syn)
- Yevanic: שִׁין (šin)
- → Dutch: syn-
- → English: syn-, sym-
- → French: syn-
- → German: syn-
- → Italian: sin-, sim-
- “σύν”, in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
- σύν in Bailly, Anatole (1935) Le Grand Bailly: Dictionnaire grec-français, Paris: Hachette
- σύν in Cunliffe, Richard J. (1924) A Lexicon of the Homeric Dialect: Expanded Edition, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, published 1963
- G4862 in Strong, James (1979) Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance to the BibleWoodhouse, S. C. (1910) English–Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited.
- Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN