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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



From Proto-Indo-European *ḱom (cognate with Lithuanian su) or from *sem-.



  1. (with instrumental) with, accompanying, alongside
  2. (with instrumental) with, by means of, using

Usage notes[edit]

Because of the law of open syllables, the final -n was normally dropped. But when combined with a stem that originally began with /j/, it was attached to the following word. Cf. Polish jego, but z niego (*sъn jego > /zɲego/), Russian ею (jeju), but с (s) нею (neju) (*sъn jejǫ > /sn’eju/) etc.


See also[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


  • East Slavic:
    • Belarusian: з (z), са (sa)
    • Russian: с (s), со (so)
    • Ukrainian: з (z), зі (zi)
  • South Slavic:
  • West Slavic:
    • Czech: s, se
    • Polish: z, ze
    • Kashubian: s, se
    • Slovak: s, so
    • Sorbian:
      • Upper Sorbian: z
      • Lower Sorbian: z