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Alternative forms[edit]

  • दुः- (duḥ-)before श्, ष्, स् (ś, ṣ, s) and rarely before क्, ख्, प्, फ् (k, kh, p, ph)
    • दुᳶ- (duf-)(upadhmānīya) optionally before प्, फ् (p, ph)
    • दुᳵ- (dux-)(jihvāmūlīya) optionally before क्, ख् (k, kh)
  • दुर्- (dur-)before vowels and voiced consonants
  • दुश्- (duś-)before च्, छ् (c, ch) and rarely before श् (ś)
  • दुष्- (duṣ-)before क्, ख्, प्, फ् (k, kh, p, ph) and rarely before ष् (); in older language also before त्, थ् (t, th) which become ट्, ठ् (ṭ, ṭh)
  • दू- (dū-)before र् (r) and sometimes before द्, ध्, न् (d, dh, n), which become ड्, ढ्, ण् (ḍ, ḍh, ṇ)


From Proto-Indo-Aryan *duš-, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *duš-, from Proto-Indo-European *dus-. Cognate with Ancient Greek δυσ- (dus-, hard, difficult), Old Armenian տ- (t-, a negative prefix), Avestan 𐬛𐬎𐬱-(duš-), Gothic 𐍄𐌿𐌶- (tuz-); Old Irish do-.


दुस्- (dus-)

  1. a prefix to nouns and rarely to verbs or adverbs (Pāṇ. 2-1, 6 ; 2, 18 Vārtt. 2 Pat. ; iii, 3, 126, etc.) implying evil, bad, difficult, hard
  2. badly, hardly; slight, inferior, etc., often = English in- or un-.


Derived terms[edit]