Appendix:List of German cognates with English

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There are many hundreds of German words that are cognate to English words, in fact a sizeable fraction of native German and English vocabulary, although for various reasons much of it is not immediately obvious. Yet many of them are easy to correlate, since the German words follow the rules of High German consonant shift, which is a German phenomenon and makes English stay closer to the Proto-Germanic language, from which both, English and German, derive.

For convenience of presentation this list has been limited to cognates whose etymologies can be established to the Proto-Germanic period at the earliest, or within the past 3000 years or so. The Modern English language includes in its vocabulary a large number of words of French origin many of which can be related as cognates to German words due to mutual descent from roots in the common Proto-Indo-European language (about 6000 years or so ago) from which both Germanic and Romance languages descend. This list ignores cognates of this linguistic depth. As of January 2018, it contains over 800 pairs of cognates.

Etymology resources for further investigation of cognates include:

For German words:

1. Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache (DWDS)
(direct link to a one-word entry: https://www.dwds.de/wb/[insert search word here])
2. Duden
3. Wiktionary (German)
(direct link to a one-word entry: https://de.wiktionary.org/wiki/[insert search word here])
4. Deutsches Wörterbuch von Jacob Grimm und Wilhelm Grimm (at DWDS and at woerterbuchnetz.de) (for advanced investigation; no modern orthography)

For English words:

1. dictionary.com
2. Oxford Dictionaries
3. Online Etymology Dictionary
(direct link to a one-word entry: https://www.etymonline.com/word/[insert search word here])
4. Wiktionary (English)
(direct link to a one-word entry https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/[insert search word here])

Contents

Mutual Inheritance from Proto-Germanic[edit]

Both German and English descend from a single language which is conventionally called Proto-Germanic. The earliest written stages at which the daughter languages that ultimately evolved in to modern German and English are treated as separate languages are denoted Old High German and Old English, respectively. We may represent this in a simple diagram as:

  • Proto-Germanic → Old High German → Modern (Standard) German
  • Proto-Germanic → Old English → Modern English

As the languages evolved away from Proto-Germanic in a largely ordered way, there remain a large number of cognates in the two languages that are the result of the evolution of the two languages from Proto-Germanic to their modern, contemporary forms. In this section we exhibit regular correspondences between modern German and English resulting from their evolution from the common Proto-Germanic mother language.

See also:
Proto-Indo-European:

Proto-Germanic:

Schleicher's Fable[edit]

We can compare the grammar and vocabulary of German and English to each other as well as to that reconstructed for Proto-Germanic using Schleicher's fable (originally written in 1868). In order to facilitate comprehension of the historic German version and the Proto-Germanic version, modern English and German translations have been placed at the top as an introduction. Lastly, a schematic English word-by-word translation of the modern German version is provided to demonstrate how the ability to identify cognates by detecting regular correspondences can help English speakers when learning German. For example, in section 1.3.2.2 - German b ~ English v you can see how German b corresponds to English v and thus Silber corresponds to silver, and Grab to grave and so forth.


English

The Sheep and the Horses
[On a hill,] a sheep that had no wool saw horses, one of them pulling a heavy wagon, one carrying a big load, and one carrying a man quickly. The sheep said to the horses: "My heart pains me, seeing a man driving horses." The horses said: "Listen, sheep, our hearts pain us when we see this: a man, the master, makes the wool of the sheep into a warm garment for himself. And the sheep has no wool." Having heard this, the sheep fled into the plain.[1]


Reformed Standard High German version

Das Schaf und die Pferde
Ein Schaf, das keine Wolle mehr hatte, sah Pferde, eines einen schweren Wagen fahrend, eines eine große Last, eines einen Menschen schnell tragend. Das Schaf sprach: Das Herz wird mir eng, wenn ich sehe, dass der Mensch die Pferde antreibt. Die Pferde sprachen: Höre Schaf, das Herz wird uns eng, weil wir gesehen haben: Der Mensch, der Herr, macht die Wolle der Schafe zu einem warmen Kleid für sich und die Schafe haben keine Wolle mehr. Als es dies gehört hatte, floh das Schaf auf das Feld.
(Quoted from German Wikipedia: Indogermanische Fabel: Deutsche Übersetzung)


Historic German version
which is Schleicher's translation of his Indogermanic Fable.

[Das] schaf und [die] rosse
[Ein] schaf, [auf] welchem wolle nicht war (ein geschorenes schaf) sah rosse, das [einen] schweren wagen fahrend, das [eine] groſse last, das [einen] menschen schnell tragend. [Das] schaf sprach [zu den] rossen: [Das] herz wird beengt [in] mir (es thut mir herzlich leid), sehend [den] menschen [die] rosse treibend. [Die] rosse sprachen: Höre schaf, [das] herz wird beengt [in den] gesehen-habenden (es thut uns herzlich leid, da wir wissen): [der] mensch, [der] herr macht [die] wolle [der] schafe [zu einem] warmen kleide [für] sich und [den] schafen ist nicht wolle (die schafe aber haben keine wolle mehr, sie werden geschoren; es geht ihnen noch schlechter als den rossen). Dies gehört-habend bog (entwich) [das] schaf [auf das] feld (es machte sich aus dem staube).


Proto-Germanic

Awiz ehwōz-uh
Awiz, sō wullǭ ne habdē, sahw ehwanz, ainanǭ kurjanǭ wagną teuhandų, ainanǭ-uh mikilǭ kuriþǭ, ainanǭ-uh gumanų sneumundô berandų. Awiz nu ehwamaz sagdē: hertô sairīþi mek, sehwandē ehwanz akandų gumanų. Ehwōz sagdēdun: gahauzī, awi! hertô sairīþi uns sehwandumiz: gumô, fadiz, uz awīz wullō wurkīþi siz warmą wastijǭ. Awiz-uh wullǭ ne habaiþi. Þat hauzidaz awiz akrą flauh.
Many more versions can be found at Wikipedia: Schleicher's fable


English translation of the modern Standard German version using as many recognizable cognates as possible, retaining German sentence structure

The following text is identical to the modern German version. Obvious cognates are written in bold font. Non-obvious cognates and obvious cognates that differ in meaning in this specific context are written in bold font and italics. In the second line, corresponding English translations are given, retaining German sentence structure (word-for-word). In the third line, explanations are given for non-obvious cognates.


Das Schaf und die Pferde
The Sheep and the Horses


Ein Schaf, das keine Wolle mehr hatte, sah Pferde, eines einen schweren Wagen fahrend, eines eine große Last, eines einen Menschen schnell tragend.
A sheep, that no wool any more had, saw horses, one a heavy wagon {faring}, one a great weight, one a {man} quickly {dragging}.
{fahrend: faring; driving}, {Mensch: man, human}, {tragend: dragging; carrying (cf. "drag": carrying clothes)}


Das Schaf sprach: Das Herz wird mir eng, wenn ich sehe, dass der Mensch die Pferde antreibt.
The sheep spoke: The heart becomes me pain when I see that the {man} the horses drives.
(note: for "wird", cf. "worth" (archaic): "woe worth the day"; becomes)


Die Pferde sprachen: Höre, Schaf, das Herz wird uns eng, weil wir gesehen haben:
The horses spoke: Hear, sheep, the heart becomes us pain because we seen have:
(none)


Der Mensch, der Herr, macht die Wolle der Schafe zu einem warmen Kleid für sich und die Schafe haben keine Wolle mehr.
The {man}, the master, makes the wool (of) the sheep (in)to warm clothes for himself and the sheep have no wool (any) more.
(none)


Als es dies gehört hatte, floh das Schaf auf das Feld.
As it this heard had, {fled} the sheep {up (=to)} the field.
{floh: fled: cf. fliehen: flee}, {auf: up; (here:) "to")}


Notes:
1. In modern German, "Pferd" is usually used for "horse". The modern German cognate to' "horse" is "Ross" (horse). "Ross" is essentially a synonym to "Pferd", though not used as frequently (e.g. poetically or regionally), or in compositions such as modern Standard German "Schlachtross" (warhorse).
2. In modern German, in the context of this story, "Last" is used for "weight, burden". The modern German cognate to "weight" is "Gewicht", which also means "weight" and is used in particular in the context measurement. "Load" is not a cognate to German "Last". However, German "Last/lasten" ("weight"/"to weigh") is etymologically connected to the German verb "laden, beladen" ("to load")[2], which is a cognate to English adjective "laden" (German: "beladen" (participle)).
3. In modern German, in the context of this story, "Herr" is used for "master". The German cognate to "master" is "Meister" ( "foreman"; "master" (1. crafts: professional qualification: e.g. Elektriker-Meister; 2. to master s.th./to be a master of s.th.: etw. meistern/ein Meister von etw. sein)). In academia, "Master of Science/Arts" has been introduced to replace the German "Diplom" qualification, i.e. the anglicism "Master", not "Meister" is used in an academic context.


Old English and Old Norse[edit]

Modern English developed from dialects of Middle English that developed within regions of Anglo-Saxon England that experienced the densest settlement of speakers of Old Norse (itself a daughter language of Proto-Germanic). The resulting Middle English was therefore heavily influenced by Old Norse, taking words from both Old English and Old Norse, and, where the words in the two languages were very similar, words that were influenced by both. This article therefore indicates cognates for the Modern English in Old English and/or Old Norse as appropriate to better reflect this state of affairs. Old Norse forms are only indicated when they are either the source of the modern English word or the difference between the Old English and Old Norse word stems is due to vowels.

Organization of tables[edit]

In general, only the singular forms of nouns, the principle parts of verbs, and base forms of other words are given. Other forms are given when they are of specific interest. Portions of words in German or Modern English that have been separated out by parentheses indicate either elements that have been added to those words since the Proto-Germanic period or the presence of stem of interest in a compound.

Regular cognates with matching consonant values[edit]

We treat alternations between voiced and unvoiced s as no change. We treat alternations between fricative v and semivowel w as approximately no change.

Standard German cognate Modern English cognate Meaning of German cognate Old English cognate Old Norse cognate Proto-Germanic root
Aal eel eel ǣl áll *ēlaz
Aar er(ne) eagle earn ǫrn *arô
Acker acre field,
acre
æcer akr *akraz
after- (prefix) after after- (prefix) æfter *after
Ähre ear (bot.) ear (bot.) ēar *ahaz
all- (det.) all all eall allr *allaz
all- (prefix) all all eall allr *allaz
an on at,
to,
on
an,
on
*ana
Angel angle fishing tackle angel,
angul
ǫngull *angulō
angeln;
angelte;
(ge)angelt
angle;
angled;
angled
to fish angel,
angul
ǫngull *angulō
Arm arm arm earm armr *armaz
backen;
backte/buk;
(ge)backt/(ge)backen
bake;
baked;
baked
to bake bacan baka *bakaną
Bäcker baker baker bæcere bakari *bakārijaz
Bahn[3] bane path,
trail,
train
bana,
bona
bani *banô
bald bold soon bald,
beald
Baldr *balþaz
Band band band,
ribbon,
tape
bend *bandiz
Bär bear bear bera bera *berô
Baum beam tree bēam *baumaz
Beere berry berry berige *bazją
beginnen;
begann;
begonnen
begin;
began;
begun
to begin beginnan *biginnaną
bei by by *bi
Bein bone leg bān beinn *bainaz
bekommen;
bekam;
bekommen
become;
became;
become
to get,
to receive
becuman *bikwemaną
bellen;
bellte;
(ge)bellt
bellow;
bellowed;
bellowed
to bark
-;
besser (adj.);
(am) best(en) (adj.)
-;
better;
best
-;
better;
best
-;
betera;
betest,
betst,
best
-;
betri;
-;
*batizô;
*batistaz
-;
besser- (prefix);
best- (prefix)
-;
better;
best
-;
better;
best
-;
betera;
betest,
betst,
best
-;
betri;
-;
*batizô;
*batistaz
Beule boil (skin infection) boil,
hump
bȳl bóla *būlō
Bier beer beer bēor bjórr *beuzą
binden;
band;
(ge)bunden
bind;
bound;
bound
to bind bindan binda *bindaną
bitter bitter bitter biter,
bitter
bitr *bitraz
blind blind blind blind blindr *blindaz
Blume bloom flower blōma blómi,
blóm
*blōmô
Bock buck buck bucc,
bucca
bukkr,
bokki
*bukkaz,
*bukkô
bohren;
bohrte;
(ge)bohrt
bore;
bored;
bored
to bore,
to drill
borian bora *burōną
Brand brand fire,
blaze
brand,
brond
*brandaz
braun brown brown brūn brúnn *brūnaz
Brust breast breast brēost brjóst *breustą
Büchse box box box *buhsuz
Bulle bull bull bula boli *bulô
Busch bush bush busc *buskaz
Butter butter butter butere *buterǭ
Delle dell dent dell *daljō
Düne down dune dūn dúnn *dūnaz,
*dūnǭ
eher ere earlier ǣr ár *airiz
eher(n) ore of iron ār eir *aiz
Eis ice ice īs íss *īsą
Ende end end ende endi *andijaz
enden;
endete;
(ge)endet
end,
ended;
ended
to end endian enda *andijōną
Ernst earnest seriousness,
zeal
eornost *ernustuz
erst erst first ǣrest *airistaz
fahren;
fuhr;
(ge)fahren
fare;
fore/fared;
faren/fared
to drive faran fara *faraną
fallen;
fiel;
(ge)fallen
fall;
fell;
fallen
to fall feallan falla *fallaną
faul foul rotten,
lazy
fūl fúll *fūlaz
Faust fist fist fȳst *funstiz
Feind fiend enemy fēond fjándi *fijandz
Feld field field feld *felþą
fern far far feorr,
feor
fjarri *ferrai
fest fast firm fæst fastr *fastuz
Fett fat fat fǣtt *faitidaz
finden;
fand;
(ge)funden
find;
found;
found
to find findan *finþaną
Finger finger finger finger fingr *fingraz
Finne fin dorsal fin finn *finnō
Fisch fish fish fisċ *fiskaz
fischen;
fischte;
(ge)fischt
fish;
fished;
fished
to fish fiscian *fiskōną
Fischer fisher fisher fisċere *fiskārijaz
Fleisch flesh meat flǣsc *flaiską
fliehen;
floh;
(ge)flohen
flee;
fled;
fled
to flee flēon flýja *fleuhaną
Floh flea flea flēah,
flēa
fló *flauhaz
Fohlen foal foal fola foli *fulô
Föhre fir pine furh fura,
fýri
*furhō
Freund friend friend frēond frændi *frijōndz
frisch fresh fresh fersċ *friskaz
Fuchs fox fox fox *fuhsaz
für for for for *furi
Fürst first chief,
prince
fyrst *furistaz
Geist ghost ghost,
mind,
spirit
gāst,
gǣst
*gaistaz
Gift gift poison ġift *giftiz
Gold gold gold gold *gulþą
Gras grass grass græs, gærs gras *grasą
grau gray/grey gray/grey grǣġ grár *grēwaz
grün green green grēne grœnn,
grǿnn
*grōniz
Grund ground ground,
reason
grund *grunduz
Haar hair hair hǣr hár *hērą
Halle hall hall heall hǫll *hallō
Hammer hammer hammer hamor,
hamer,
homer
hamarr *hamaraz
Hand hand hand hand hǫnd *handuz
hängen;
hing;
(ge)hangen
hang;
hung;
hung
to hang (intrans.) hōn hanga *hanhaną
Haus house house hūs hús *hūsą
Heft haft booklet,
notebook,
haft
hæft *haftiją
hehr hoar noble,
sublime
hār *hairaz
Heil (nom.) hail salvation hāl heill *hailaz
heil (adj.) hale intact,
safe,
whole
hāl heill *hailaz
heil whole whole hāl heill *hailaz
heilen;
heilte;
(ge)heilt
heal;
healed;
healed
to heal hǣlan heila *hailijaną
Heim home home hām heimr *haimaz
hemmen;
hemmte;
(ge)hemmt
hem;
hemmed;
hemmed
to check,
to hamper
hemja *hamjaną
Henne hen hen henn *hanjō
Herde herd herd heord *herdō
Herr hoar gentleman hār *hairaz
Heu hay hay hīġ hey *hawją
hindern;
hinderte;
(ge)hindert
hinder;
hindered;
hindered
to hinder hinder *hinder
hohl hollow hollow hol holr *hulaz
Höhle hole cave hol holr *hulaz
Hölle hell hell hell hel *haljō
Holm holm small island holm *hulmaz
hören;
hörte;
(ge)hört
hear;
heard;
heard
to hear hȳran, hēran, hīeran heyra *hauzijaną
Hose hose pants hose, hosa hosa *husǭ
Huf;
Hufe
hoof;
hooves/hoofs
hoof hōf hófr *hōfaz
Hund hound dog hund hundr *hundaz
Hure whore whore hōre hóra *hōrǭ
in in in in *in
Jahr year year ġēar *jērą
jung young young ġeong *jungaz
kahl callow bald calu *kalwaz
klein clean little clǣne klénn *klainiz
Kluft cleft cleft kluft *kluftiz
Knie knee knee cnēo kné *knewą
Kohle coal coal col kol *kulą
kommen;
kam;
(ge)kommen
come;
came;
come
to come cuman koma *kwemaną
Korn corn grain corn korn *kurną
Kraft craft force,
power
cræft *kraftaz
Kran crane crane cran *kranô
kühl cool cool cōl *kōlaz,
*kōluz
küssen;
küsste;
(ge)küsst
kiss;
kissed;
kissed
to kiss cyssan kyssa *kussijaną
Land land land land,
lond
land *landą
lang long long lang,
long
langr *langaz
Lasche lash tongue
Laus;
Läuse
louse;
lice
louse, lice lūs lús *lūs
lecken;
leckte;
(ge)leckt
leak;
leaked;
leaked
to leak leka *lekaną
lecken;
leckte;
(ge)leckt
lick;
licked;
licked
to lick liccian *likkōną
Lehre lore science,
teaching
lār *laizō
lernen;
lernte;
(ge)lernt
learn;
learnt/learned;
learnt/learned
to learn leornian *liznaną
lisp(el)n;
lisp(el)te;
(ge)lisp(el)t
lisp;
lisped;
lisped
lisp wlisp *wlispaz
Luft lift air lyft *luftuz
Luft loft air loft lopt *luftuz
lüften;
lüftete;
(ge)lüftet
lift;
lifted;
lifted
to lift (a secret, the curtain) lypta *luftijaną
Lunge lung lung lunga *lungô
Lust lust pleasure,
joy
lust lyst *lustuz
Mahl meal repast mǣl mál *mēlą
Mähne mane mane manu *manō
Mähre mare decrepit old horse mere,
miere
merr *marhijō
Mal meal time (instance) mǣl mál *mēlą
Mann;
Männer
man;
men
man mann *mann-
Mark mark mark mearc *markō
Marsch marsh marsh *mariskaz
Mast mast mast (naut) mæst mastr *mastaz
Maus;
Mäuse
mouse;
mice
mouse mūs *mūs
Mehl meal flour melo,
melu
*melwą
-;
mehr (adv.),
(am) meist(en) (adv.)
-;
more;
most
-;
more;
most
-;
māra;
māst, mǣst
-;
meiri;
mestr
-;
*maizô;
*maistaz, *maist
-;
mehr- (prefix);
meist- (prefix)
-;
more;
most
-;
more;
most
-;
māra;
māst, mǣst
-;
meiri;
mestr
-;
*maizô;
*maistaz, *maist
mein mine my mīn mínn *mīnaz
meinen;
meinte;
(ge)meint
mean;
meant;
meant
to think,
to mean
mǣnan meina *mainijaną
Nacke(n) neck nape of the neck hnecca hnakki *hnakkô
Name name name nama,
noma
namn *namô
Nase nose nose nosu *nusō
Nest nest nest nest *nestaz
neun nine nine niġon *newun
nu(n) now now *nu
Ochse;
Ochsen
ox;
oxen
ox oxa *uhsô
Ofen oven oven ofn ofn *uhnaz
Ohr ear ear ēare eyra *ausô
ost- (prefix) east- (prefix) east- (prefix) ēast austr *austrą
Oste(n) east east ēast austr *austrą
Oster- (prefix) Easter Easter ēastre,
Ēostre
*Austrǭ
Oster(n) Easter Easter ēastre,
Ēostre
*Austrǭ
Otter otter otter oter,
otor
*utraz
quälen;
quälte;
(ge)quält
quell;
quelled;
quelled
to torment cwellan kvelja *kwaljaną
quer queer diagonal þweorh þverr *þwerhaz
Ramm ram ram ramm,
ram,
rom
*rammaz
rasch rash (adj.) rash (adj.),
swift
*raskuz
Raum room space,
room
rūm rúm *rūmą
Reh roe (deer) roe (deer) rāha,
rāa,
*raihą
Reihe row row rāw *raih-
rennen;
rannte;
(ge)rannt
run;
ran;
run
to run,
to race
rinnan rinna,
renna
*rinnaną
Reue rue repentance,
remorse,
regret
hrēow *hrewwō
Ring ring ring hring *hringaz
rinnen;
rann;
(ge)ronnen
run;
ran;
run
to flow rinnan rinna,
renna
*rinnaną
(ver)rotten;
(ver)rottete;
(ver)rottet
rot;
rotted;
rotted
to rot rotna *rutōną
Ruder rudder oar,
rudder
rōþor *rōþrą
Sack sack sack sæcc sekkr *sakkuz
säen;
säte;
(ge)sät
sow;
sowed;
sown
to sow sāwan *sēaną
Sand sand sand sand sandr *samdaz
(Ge)sang song chant,
singing
sang,
song
sǫngr *sangwaz
Sau sow sow sugu
sauer sour sour sūr *sūraz
Saum seam seam sēam *saumaz
Schaft shaft shaft sċeaft *skaftaz
schal shoal stale,
flat,
vapid
Schale shale husk,
pod
*skalō
Scham shame shame sċamu, sċeamu *skamō
Schar share troop sċearu *skarō
Schauer shower shower,
shudder
sċūr *skūrō
schauen;
schaute;
(ge)schaut
show;
showed;
shown/showed
to look,
to see,
to behold
sċēawian *skawwōną
scheiden;
schied;
(ge)schieden
shed;
shed;
shed
to separate sċādan,
sċēadan
*skaiþaną
scheinen;
schien;
(ge)schienen
shine;
shone;
shone
to seem sċīnan *skīnaną
Schenkel shank thigh sċanca *skankô
Schild shield shield sċield *skelduz
schön sheen beautiful sċīene *skauniz
Schuh shoe shoe sċōh *skōhaz
See sea sea sær,
sjár
*saiwiz
Seele soul soul,
spirit
sāwol *saiwalō
sehen;
sah;
(ge)sehen
see;
saw;
seen
to see sēon sjá *sehwaną
singen;
sang;
(ge)sungen
sing;
sang;
sung
to sing singan syngja *singwaną
sinken;
sank;
(ge)sunken
sink;
sank;
sunk
to sink sincan *sinkwaną
so so so swā svá *swa,
*swē
Sohle sole sole
Sohn son son sunu sonr *sunuz
Sommer summer summer sumor sumar *sumaraz
Sonne sun sun sunne sunna *sunnǭ
Spanne span margin,
span,
spread,
range
spann
spannen;
spannte;
(ge)spannt
span;
spanned;
spanned
to stretch,
to tighten,
to span
spannan *spannaną
spar(sam) spare economical spær spǫrr
sparen;
sparte;
(ge)spart
spare;
spared;
spared
to save,
to conserve,
to economize
sparian spara *sparōną,
*sparjaną
Speer spear spear spere *speru
spenden;
spendete;
(ge)spendet
spend;
spent;
spent
to donate spendan
Sper(ling) sparrow sparrow spearwa *sparwô
spinnen;
spann;
(ge)sponnen
spin;
spun;
spun
to spin yarn;
to be nuts
spinnan spinna *spinnaną
springen;
sprang;
(ge)sprungen
spring;
sprang;
sprung
to jump,
to leap
springan springa *springaną
sprühen;
sprühte;
(ge)sprüht
spray;
sprayed;
sprayed
to spray
Stahl steel steel stēle,
stȳle
stál
Stall stall cattle shed,
stable,
pigsty
steall *stallaz
Stamm stem trunk,
stem
stemn,
stefn
*stamniz
stark stark strong,
powerful
stearc *starkuz
starren;
starrte;
(ge)starrt
stare;
stared;
stared
to stare starian
stehlen;
stahl;
(ge)stohlen
steal;
stole;
stolen
to steal stelan stela,
stjala
*stelaną
steif stiff stiff,
rigid
stīf *stīfaz
Stein stone stone stān steinn *stainaz
steuern;
steuerte;
(ge)steuert
steer;
steered;
steered
to steer stīeran stýra *stiurijaną
Stier steer bull stēor *steuraz
still still calm,
silent
stille *stillijaz
stinken;
stank;
(ge)stunken
stink;
stank/stunk;
stunk
to stink stincan *stinkwaną
stören;
störte;
(ge)stört
stir;
stirred;
stirred
to bother so.,
to disturb so./sth.,
to perturb so./sth.
styrian *sturiz
Strand strand beach strand strǫnd *strandō
streng strong strict,
severe
strang,
strong
strangr *strangaz
Strom stream current,
stream
strēam straumr *straumaz
Stuhl stool chair stōl stóll *stōlaz
Sturm storm storm storm stormr *sturmaz
treu true faithful,
loyal,
true
trēowe *triwwiz
Trost trust comfort,
consolation
traust *traustą
und and and and *andi
ver- (prefix) for- (prefix) for- (prefix),
fer- (prefix),
fær- (prefix),
fyr- (prefix)
for- (prefix),
fyr- (prefix),
fir- (prefix)
*firi- (prefix),
*fra- (prefix)
verloren forlorn lost forlēosan *fraleusaną
Vieh fee cattle feoh *fehu
vier four four fēower fjórir *fedwōr
Volk folk people folc fólk *fulką
vor fore- (prefix) before,
in front of
fōr(e)- (prefix) for- (prefix) *furai- (prefix)
wachsen;
wuchs;
(ge)wachsen
wax;
waxed;
waxed
to grow weaxan vaxa *wahsijaną
wandern;
wanderte;
(ge)wandert
wander;
wandered;
wandered
to hike,
to wander
wandrian *wandrōną
warm warm warm wearm varmr *warmaz
warnen;
warnte;
(ge)warnt
warn;
warned;
warned
to warn warnian,
wearnian
varna *warnōną
waschen;
wusch;
(ge)waschen
wash;
washed;
washen/washed
to wash wascan,
wæscan
*waskaną
weh woe sore,
painful
vei,
*wai
Wein wine wine wīn vín *wīną
welsch Welsh pertaining to romance-speaking areas of Switzerland welisc,
wilisc
valskr *walhiskaz
wenden;
wandte/wendete;
(ge)wandt/(ge)wendet
wend;
went/wended;
went/wended
to turn,
to reverse
wendan venda *wandijaną
Werk work work weorc,
worc
verk *werką
Wespe wasp wasp wæsp *wepsō-
west- (prefix) west west west vestr *westrą
Weste(n) west west west vestr *westrą
Wiesel weasel weasel visla *wisulǭ
wild wild wild wilde *wilþijaz
Wille will will willa vili *wiljô
Wind wind wind wind vindr *windaz
winken;
winkte;
(ge)wunken/(ge)winkt
wink;
winked;
winked
to wave,
to beckon
wincian *winkōną
Winter winter winter winter vintr *wintruz
wirken;
wirkte;
(ge)wirkt
work;
worked,;
worked
to appear to be sth.,
to be effective
wyrċan yrkja,
orka
*wurkijaną
wohl well well wel vel *wela
Wolf wolf wolf wulf úlfr *wulfaz
Wolle wool wool wull ull *wullō
wollen;
wollte;
(ge)wollt
will;
would;
would
to want,
to will (chiefly for "to want")
willan vilja,
velja
*wiljaną,
*waljaną
Wunder wonder miracle,
wonder
wundor undr *wundrą
Wurm worm worm wyrm ormr *wurmiz

Regular cognates with differing consonant values[edit]

Proto-Germanic Voiced Stop Consonants[edit]

Proto-Germanic *b[edit]
German b ~ English f, ff[edit]

German word-internal b has two main correspondences. The first is English f, always in cases at the end of a word:

Standard German cognate Modern English cognate Meaning of German cognate Old English Cognate Old Norse Cognate Proto-Germanic root
ab of off æf,
af,
of
af *ab
ab off off æf,
af,
of
af *ab
halb half half healf halfr *halbaz
ob if if ġif ef,
if
*jabai
taub deaf deaf dēaf daufr *daubaz
German b ~ English v[edit]

In other cases, German b corresponds to English v. This correspondence always occurs between vowels (though in English, this may be only an orthographic silent e). English f and v are therefore in complementary distribution, and have developed from the same source.

Standard German cognate Modern English cognate Meaning of German cognate Old English cognate Old Norse cognate Proto-Germanic root
berauben;
beraubt;
beraubt
bereave;
bereft/bereaved;
bereft/bereaved
to deprive,
to rob,
to bereave
*biraubōną
Biber beaver beaver *bebruz
eben even even (flat and smooth) *ebnaz
Grab grave grave *grabą
haben;
hatte;
(ge)habt
have;
had;
had
to have *habjaną
heben;
hob;
(ge)hoben
heave;
hove/heaved
hove/hoven/heaved
to lift *habjaną
Herbst harvest autumn *harbistaz
leben;
lebte;
(ge)lebt
live;
lived;
lived
to live *libjaną
Leber liver liver *librō
Liebe love love *lubō
loben;
lobte;
(ge)lobt
love;
loved;
loved
to praise,
to compliment so.
*lubōną
Nabel navel navel *nabalô
Ober- (prefix) over upper,
senior,
chief
*uber
ober(halb) over over,
above
*uber
Rabe raven raven *hrabnaz
Salbe salve ointment,
salve
*salbō
schaben;
schabte;
(ge)schabt
shave;
shaved;
shaved
to scrape,
to shave
*skabaną
schieben;
schob;
(ge)schoben
shove;
shoved;
shoved
to push,
to shove
*skeubaną
Sieb sieve sieve *sibi
sieben seven seven *sebun
Silber silver silver *silubrą
sterben;
starb;
(ge)storben
starve;
starved;
starved
to die *sterbaną
Stube stove living room
Taube dove pigeon,
dove
*dūbǭ
übel evil bad,
evil,
sick
*ubilaz
über over above,
about,
over
*uber
weben;
wob/webte;
(ge)woben/(ge)webt
weave;
wove/weaved;
woven/weaved
to weave *webaną
German b ~ English f : v[edit]

That the two above correspondences have the same source is further demonstrated by words where English f (word-final) alternates with v (word-medial) in inflection.

Standard German cognate Modern English cognate Meaning of German cognate Proto-Germanic root
Alb;
Alben
elf;
elves
elf *albiz
Dieb;
Diebe
thief;
thieves
thief *þeubaz
Kalb;
Kälber
calf;
calves
calf *kalbaz
Laib;
Laibe
loaf;
loaves
loaf *hlaibaz
Laub leaf;
leaves
foliage *laubą
Leib;
Leiber
life;
lives
body *lībą
Stab;
Stäbe
staff;
staves/staffs
staff *stabaz
Weib;
Weiber [dated/derog.]
wife;
wives
woman *wībą
Proto-Germanic *d[edit]
German dt, t, tt ~ English d, dd[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
alt old old *aldaz
Bart beard beard *bardaz
behalten, behielt, behalten to keep, to maintain, to retrain behold, beheld, beholden/beheld *bihaldaną
Gebet, beten prayer, to pray bead *bedō, *bedą, *gabedą
Bett bed bed *badją
Bitte request bead *bedō
bitten, bat, (ge)beten to ask, to request bid, bid/bade, bid/bidden *bidjaną
Blatt blade blade *bladą
Braut bride bride *brūdiz
breit broad broad *braidaz
Brot bread bread *braudą
Brut brood brood *brōduz
Draht wire thread *þrēduz
eitel vain, conceited idle *īdalaz
Flut flood flood *flōduz
Futter fodder fodder *fōdrą
fürder [rare, dated] in the future further *furþeraz
gelten, galt, (ge)golten to be effective, to count (be valid) yield, yielded, yielded *geldaną
gleiten, glitt, (ge)glitten to glide glide, glid/glided, glid/glided *glīdaną
Gott god god *gudą
gürten, gürtete, (ge)gürtet [rare] to gird gird, girt/girded, girt/girded *gurdijaną
Gürtel belt girdle *gurdilaz
gut good good *gōdaz
halten, hielt, (ge)halten to hold hold, held, holden/held *haldaną
hart hard hard *harduz
Hort refuge, shelter, day care hoard *huzdą
hundert hundred hundred *hundaradą
Hut hat hood *hōdaz
hüten, hütete, (ge)hütet to beware (of) so./sth., to tend (a herd/flock) heed, heeded, heeded *hōdijaną
kalt cold cold *kaldaz
leiten, leitete, (ge)leitet to guide, to lead, to run sth. lead, lead, lead *laidijaną
Lot perpendicular, plummet, solder, sounding lead lead (metal) *laudą
Matte mountain pasture meadow *mēdwō
Met mead mead *meduz
mit with mid *midi
Mittel (nom.) means, median (average value) middle *midlą
mittel (adj.) middle middle *midlą
Mut courage mood *mōdaz
mutig courageous moody
Natter grass-snake adder *nadrǭ
Not need need *naudiz
Otter adder, viper adder *nadrǭ
raten, riet, (ge)raten to guess, to advise read, read, read *rēdaną
reiten, ritt, (ge)ritten to ride (an animal) ride, rode, ridden *rīdaną
retten, rettete, (ge)rettet to save rid, rid, rid *hradjaną
rot red red *raudaz
Saat sowing, seed seed *sēdiz
satt full, lush, to be full up (food) sad *sadaz
Schatte(n) shadow shadow *skadwaz
Schulter shoulder shoulder *skuldrô
Schwert sword sword *swerdą
Seite side side *sīdǭ
Stadt city stead *stadiz
Tag day day *dagaz
Tal valley dale *dalą
tapfer brave, plucky dapper *dapraz
Tat deed deed *dēdiz
Tau dew dew *dawwaz, *dawwą
taub deaf deaf *daubaz
tauchen, tauchte, (ge)taucht to dive duck, ducked, ducked *dūkaną
Taube pigeon, dove dove *dūbǭ
Tenne threshing floor, barn for threshing den *danjō
Teich pond ditch *dīkaz
Teil part, fraction dole *dailą
teilen, teilte, (ge)teilt to divide, to share deal, dealt, dealt *dailijaną
tief deep deep *deupaz
Tier animal deer *deuzą
Tisch table dish
Tochter daughter daughter *duhtēr
Tod death death *dauþuz
toll amazing, great; crazy (obs.) dull *dulaz
Tor gate door *durz
tot dead dead *daudaz
tun, tat, (ge)tan to do do, did, done *dōną
Tür door door *durz
unter under under *under
Urteil judgement, verdict ordeal *uzdailiją
walten, waltete, (ge)waltet to preside over sth., to prevail, to rule wield, wielded, wielded *waldaną
warten, wartete, (ge)wartet to wait, to maintain ward, warded, warded *wardāną
waten, watete, (ge)watet to wade wade, waded, waded *wadaną
weit wide wide *wīdaz
Welt world world *weraldiz
wetten, wettete, (ge)wettet to bet, to wager wed, wed/wedded, wed/wedded *wadjōną
Witwe widow widow *widuwǭ
Zeit time tide [German: die Gezeiten] *tīdiz
Proto-Germanic *g[edit]
German g ~ English Ø, y[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Auge eye eye *augô
einig- some any *ainagaz
Fliege fly (animal) fly *fleugǭ
fliegen, flog, (ge)flogen to fly fly, flew, flown *fleuganą
gähnen, gähnte, (ge)gähnt to yawn yawn, yawned, yawned
Garn yarn yarn *garną
Garten garden, yard yard *gardaz
gelb yellow yellow *gelwaz
Geld money yield *geldą
gelten, galt, (ge)golten to be effective, to count (be valid) yield, yielded, yielded *geldaną
heilig holy holy *hailagaz
Honig honey honey *hunagą
legen, legte, (ge)legt to lay lay, laid, laid *lagjaną
liegen, lag, (ge)legen to lie lie, lay, lain *ligjaną
lügen, log, (ge)logen to lie lie, lied, lied *leuganą
mögen, mochte, (ge)mocht to like - (may), might, might *maganą
Pfennig a denomination of coin penny *panningaz
pflegen, pflegte, (ge)pflegt to groom; to nurse, to tend so./sth. play, played, played *plehaną, *plegōną
Roggen rye rye *rugiz
sagen, sagte, (ge)sagt to say say, said, said *sagjaną
Tag day day *dagaz
traurig sad dreary *dreuzagaz
Weg, weg way way *wegaz
Zeug stuff, things toy *teugą
German g ~ English , gh /∅/[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
biegen, bog, (ge)bogen to bend, to bow bow, bowed, bowed *beuganą
Bogen bow bow *bugô
Bug shoulder joint (of an animal) bough *bōguz
eigen own, proper own *aiganaz
Ellenbogen elbow elbow *alinabugô
Pflug plow plough/plow *plōgaz
Säge saw saw *sagō
tragen, trug, (ge)tragen to carry, to bear, to wear draw, drew, drawn *draganą
wägen, wog/wägte, (ge)wogen/(ge)wägt to weigh weigh, weighed, weighed *weganą

Proto-Germanic Unvoiced Stop Consonants[edit]

Proto-Germanic *k[edit]

The correspondences for *k are somewhat complicated as both German and English exhibit two kinds of changes from *k. In German, *k can remain k or become ch (/x/), while in English, *k can remain k or become ch (/tʃ/).

German ch ~ English ch /tʃ/, tch /tʃ/[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Bach stream beach *bakiz
bleich pale, wan, sallow bleach *blaikaz
Bruch breach, crack, fracture breach *brukiz
Buche beech beech *bōkijǭ
Dach roof thatch *þaką
reichen, reichte, (ge)reicht to last, to pass sth. to so., to reach, to suffice reach, reached, reached *raikijaną
solch- [e.g. solcher, solche, ...] such such *swalīkaz
Sprache language, speech speech *sprēkijō
Teich pond ditch *dīkaz
wachen, wachte, (ge)wacht to be awake, to watch over so./sth. watch, watched, watched *wakjaną
welch- [e.g. welcher, welche, ...] which which *hwilīkaz
German ch ~ English ck, k[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
bleich pale, wan, sallow bleak *blaikaz
brechen, brach, (ge)brochen break break, broke, broken *brekaną
Bruch swamp, marsh brook *brōkaz
Buch book book *bōks
Eiche oak oak *aiks
frech brash, cheeky, insulting freak *frekô
Joch yoke yoke *juką
Knochen bone knuck(le) *knukô
kochen, kochte, (ge)kocht to boil, to cook cook, cooked, cooked *kukōną
Kuchen cake cake *kakǭ
Lache pool lake *lakō, *lōkiz
Lerche lark (bird) Lark
Milch milk milk
rächen, rächte, (ge)rächt to avenge, to take revenge wreak, wrought/wreaked, wrought/wreaked *wrekaną
Rechen rake, grill rake *rakō, *rekô
rechnen, rechnete, (ge)rechnet to calculate, to reckon reckon, reckoned, reckoned *rekanōną
riechen, roch, (ge)rochen to smell reek, reeked, reeked *reukaną
Sache matter, cause sake *sakō
sprechen, sprach, (ge)sprochen to speak speak, spoke, spoken *sprekaną
Storch stork stork *sturkaz
Streich stroke stroke *straikaz
streichen, strich, (ge)strichen to stroke strike, struck, struck/stricken *strīkaną
streich(el)n, streich(el)te, (ge)streich(el)t to stroke, to pet, to fondle stroke, stroked, stroked *straikōną
Strich stroke, line streak *strikiz
tauchen, tauchte, (ge)taucht to dive duck, ducked, ducked *dūkaną
weich weak, soft weak *waikwaz
Woche week week *wikǭ
Zeichen sign token *taikną
German ck, k ~ English ch /tʃ/, tch /tʃ/[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Bank bench bench *bankiz
Birke birch birch *birkijǭ
Fink finch finch *finkiz
(Ge)bäck pastry batch *bakiz
(Ge)stank stench, odor, smell stench *stankwiz
hecken, heckte, (ge)heckt to hatch, to give birth to hatch, hatched, hatched
Käfer beetle chafer *kebrô
karg meager, barren, poor chary *karagaz
Käse cheese cheese *kāsijaz
kauen, kaute, (ge)kaut to chew chew, chewed, chewed *kewwaną
Kerl guy churl *karilaz
kiesen, kor, (ge)koren (obs.) to choose choose, chose, chosen *keusaną
Kinn chin chin *kinnuz
kipfen, kipfte, (ge)kipft (obs.) to snip sth. chip, chipped, chipped
Kiste box chest
Krücke crutch crutch *krukjō
Kühle coolness chill *kaliz
Recke [elevated; otherwise dated] valiant wretch *wrakjô
strecken, streckte, (ge)streckt to stretch stretch, stretched, stretched *strakjaną
Stück piece stitch *stukkiją
tränken, tränkte, (ge)tränkt to water drench, drenched, drenched *drankijaną
Proto-Germanic *p[edit]
German f, ff ~ English p[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Affe monkey, ape ape *apô
auf on, upon, up up *upp
greifen, griff, (ge)griffen to grab, to grip, to take effect grip, gripped, gripped *grīpaną
Harfe harp harp *harpǭ
Haufen heap heap *haupaz
helfen, half, (ge)holfen to help help, holp/helped, holpen/helped *helpaną
Hilfe help help *helpō, *hulpiz
hoffen, hoffte, (ge)hofft to hope hope, hoped, hoped *hupōną
Hüfte hip hip *hupiz
laufen, lief, (ge)laufen to walk, to run leap, leapt/leaped, leapt/leaped *hlaupaną
offen open open *upanaz
raufen, raufte, (ge)rauft to scuffle, to tuffle rip, ripped, ripped *ruppōną
reif mature, ripe ripe
schaffen, schuf, (ge)schaffen to accomplish sth., to manage, to cope with sth. shape, shope/shaped, shapen/shaped *skapjaną
scharf sharp; hot, spicy (food) sharp *skarpaz
Schiff ship ship *skipą
schlürfen, schlürfte, (ge)schlürft to sip, to slurp slurp, slurped, slurped
stief- (prefix) step- (prefix) step- (prefix) *steupa-
tief deep deep *deupaz
Waffe weapon weapon *wēpną
werfen, warf, (ge)worfen to throw warp, warped, warped *werpaną
German pf ~ English p[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Apfel apple apple *aplaz
hüpfen, hüpfte, (ge)hüpft to hop hop, hopped, hopped *huppōną
Kampf battle, fight, struggle camp
Krampf cramp cramp *krampō
Kropf crop, goitre crop *kruppaz
Pfad path path *paþaz
Pfahl pole pole
Pfennig a denomination of coin penny *panningaz
pflegen, pflegte, (ge)pflegt to groom, to nurse, to tend so./sth. play, played, played *plehaną, *plegōną
Pflug plow plough/plow *plōgaz
Pfuhl quagmire, mudhole pool *pōlaz
Rumpf hull, torso, trunk rump
stampfen, stampfte, (ge)stampft to stamp stamp, stamped, stamped
stampfen, stampfte, (ge)stampft to stamp stomp, stomped, stomped
stapfen, stapfte, (ge)stapft to trudge step, stepped, stepped *stapjaną
Stumpf stump stump *stumpaz
tapfer brave, plucky dapper *dapraz
Tropfen drop drop *drupô
Proto-Germanic *t[edit]
German s, ss, ß ~ English t, tt[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Ameise ant ant *ēmaitijǭ
aus out, out of, from out *ūt
beißen, biss, (ge)bissen to bite bite, bit, bitten *bītaną
-, besser, best- better, best -, better, best -, *batizô, *batistaz
das that that *þat
dass that that *þat
essen, aß, (ge)gessen to eat (human) eat, ate, eaten *etaną
Fass barrel, keg, drum, cask, vat vat *fatą
fressen, fraß, (ge)fressen to eat (animal) fret, frate/fretted, fretten/fretted *fraetaną
Fuß, Füße foot foot, feet *fōts
Gasse lane gate *gatwǭ
Geiß [regional] goat goat *gaits
Grieß semolina grit *greutą
groß big, huge, large great *grautaz
grüßen, grüßte, (ge)grüßt greet greet, greeted, greeted *grōtijaną
Hass hate hate *hataz
hassen, haste, (ge)hasst to hate hate, hated, hated *hatōną
Hornisse hornet hornet *hurznutō
Kloß lump, dumpling clod *klūtaz
Kloß lump, dumpling cloud *klūtaz
lassen, ließ, (ge)lassen to let let, let, let *lētaną
Los lot, fate lot *hlutą
messen, maß, (ge)messen to measure mete, meted, meted *metaną
müssen, musste, (ge)musst to must (mote), (must), -, - *mōtaną
Nuss nut nut *hnuts
reißen, riss, (ge)rissen to tip, to tear write, wrote, written *wrītaną
scheißen, schiss, (ge)schissen to shit shit, shitted, shitted *skītaną
schmeißen, schmiss, (ge)schmissen to throw smite, smote, smitten/smited *smītaną
schießen, schoss, (ge)schossen to shoot shoot, shot, shot *skeutaną
Schweiß sweat sweat *swait-
Sessel chair settle *setlaz
sitzen, saß, (ge)sessen to sit sit, sat, sitten/sat *sitjaną
vergessen, vergaß, vergessen to forget forget, forgot, forgotten *fragetaną
was what what *hwat
Wasser water water *watōr
Zwielicht twilight, dusk twilight
German tz, z ~ English t, tt[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
furzen, furzte, (ge)furzt to fart fart, farted, farted *fertaną
Herz heart heart *hertô
Hitze heat heat *haitį̄
Katze cat cat *kattuz
kurz short curt *kurtaz
ritzen, ritzte, (ge)ritzt to scratch write, wrote, written *wrītaną
Salz salt salt *saltą
Schürze apron shirt *skurtijǭ
setzen, setzte, (ge)setzt to place, to put, to set, to sit down set, set, set *satjaną
sitzen, saß, (ge)sessen to sit sit, sat, sitten/sat *sitjaną
Stelze stilt stilt
stürzen, stürzte, (ge)stürzt to fall down, to dash, to throw start, started, started *sturtijaną
Warze wart wart *wartǭ
Weize(n) wheat wheat *hwaitijaz
Witz joke wit *witją
Wurz(el) root wort *wrōts
Zagel [regional] tail tail *taglą
zäh chewy, tough tough *tanhuz
Zahl number, figure tale Proto-Germanic *talō
zählen, zählte, (ge)zählt to count tell, told, told *taljaną
zahm tame tame *tamaz
Zange pliers, pincers, tongs tong
zart delicate, tender tart
Zaum bridle team *taumaz
Zaun fencing town *tūną
Zecke tick tick
Zeichen sign token *taikną
Zeh toe toe *taihwǭ
zehn ten ten *tehun
zehren, zehrte, (ge)zehrt to live on sth. tear, tore, torn *teraną
Zeit time tide *tīdiz
zerren, zerrte, (ge)zerrt to tug, to drag sth., to wrench tear, tore, torn *teraną
Zeug stuff, things toy *teugą
Ziegel brick, tile tile *tigulǭ
Zimmer room timber *timrą
Zinn tin tin *tiną
Zitze tit (of an animal) tit
zu to, too to, too *tō, *ta
zucken, zuckte, (ge)zuckt to jerk tuck, tucked, tucked *tukkōną
Zunge tongue tongue *tungǭ
zwei two twain *twai
Zweig twig twig *twīgą
zwink(er)n, zwink(er)t, (ge)zwink(er)t to blink, to wink twink(le), twink(el)d, twink(el)d
Zwist turmoil, strife, discord twist
zwölf twelve twelve *twalif

Proto-Germanic Fricative Consonants[edit]

Proto-Germanic *f[edit]
German f ~ English v[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
elf eleven eleve(n) *ainalif
Fass barrel, keg, drum, cask, vat vat *fatą
Schaufel shovel shovel *skuflō
zwölf twelve twelve *twalif
Proto-Germanic *h[edit]

The correspondences for *h are somewhat complicated as English exhibits two kinds of changes from *h. In English, *h can become a gh /∅/, or it can become gh /f/. This yields two possible rules of correspondence.

German ch ~ English gh /∅/[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
doch still, yet though *þauh
hoch high high *hauhaz
German ch ~ English gh /f/[edit]
German Meaning of German word English cognate Proto-Germanic root
keuchen, keuchte, (ge)keucht to pant cough, coughed, coughed
lachen, lachte, (ge)lacht to laugh laugh, laughed, laughed *hlahjaną
zäh chewy, tough tough *tanhuz
Proto-Germanic *s[edit]

Both languages exhibit some tendency to rhotacization.

German s ~ English r[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Eisen iron iron *īsarną
Hase hare hare *hasô
Proto-Germanic *þ[edit]
German d ~ English th[edit]

We treat alternations between voiced and unvoiced th as equivalent.

German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Bad bath bath *baþą
baden, badete, (ge)badet to bathe bathe, bathed, bathed *baþōną
Bruder brother brother *brōþēr
da there there *þar
Dach roof thatch *þaką
danken, dankte, (ge)dankt to thank thank, thanked, thanked *þankōną
dann, denn then than, then
das that that *þat
dass that that *þat
Daumen thumb thumb *þūmô
denken, dachte, (ge)dacht to think think, thought, thought *þankijaną
dick thick thick *þekuz
Dieb [pl. Diebe] thief thief, thieves *þeubaz
Ding thing thing *þingą
Distel thistle thistle *þistilaz
doch still, yet though *þauh
Dorn thorn thorn *þurnuz
Draht wire thread *þrēduz
Drang urge, drive throng *þrangwaz
drehen, drehte, (ge)dreht to rotate, to spin, to turn throw, thrown, thrown *þrēaną
drei three three *þrīz
dreschen, drosch, (ge)droschen to thresh, to thrash thrash, thrashed, thrashed *þreskaną
dreschen, drosch, (ge)droschen to thresh, to thrash thresh, threshed, threshed *þreskaną
dünn thin thin *þunnuz
durch through thorough *þurhw
durch through through *þurhw
Durst thirst thirst *þurstuz
Eid oath oath *aiþaz
Erde Earth Earth *erþō
Feder feather feather *feþrō
(Ge)dränge jostle, throng throng *þrangwaz
Heide heath, moor heath *haiþī
Herd stove, cooker hearth *herþaz
Leder leather leather *leþrą
leid weary, sorry; [anguish] loath *laiþaz
Mund mouth mouth *munþaz
nieder down, low nether *niþer
nord-, Norden north north *nurþrą
Pfad path path *paþaz
Schmied smith smith *smiþaz
Schmiede smithy smithy *smiþjǭ
sieden, sott, (ge)sotten to simmer, to seethe seethe, sod/seethed, sodden/seethed *seuþaną
süd-, Süden south south *sunþrą
Tod death death *dauþuz
weder neither whether *hwaþeraz
werden, wurde, (ge)worden to become worth, worth/worthed, worth/worthen/worthed *werþaz
wider against with
wieder again with
German t ~ English th[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Monat month month *mēnōþs
Motte moth moth
tauen, taute, (ge)taut to thaw thaw, thawed, thawed
tausend thousand thousand *þūsundī

Proto-Germanic Liquid Consonants[edit]

Proto-Germanic *l[edit]
German l, ll ~ English , l (∅)[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
solch- such such *swalīkaz
welch- which which *hwilīkaz
walken, walkte, (ge)walkt to churn, to tumble sth.; to knead (coll.) walk, walked, walked *walkaną
wollen, wollte, (ge)wollt to want, to will (chiefly for "to want"); [I] want/will - (will), would, would *waljaną
Proto-Germanic *r, *z[edit]

Proto-Germanic *z developed into Proto-West Germanic *r. Both languages exhibit some tendency to drop the original *r.

German ~ English r[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
da there there *þar
Welt world world *weraldiz
wo where where *hwar
German r ~ English [edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
mir me me *miz
Sprache language, speech speech *sprēkijō
sprechen, sprach, (ge)sprochen to speak speak, spoke, spoken *sprekaną
wider against with
wieder again with
wir we we *wīz
Zwirn thread twine *twiznaz

Proto-Germanic Nasal Consonants[edit]

Proto-Germanic *m[edit]
German m, mm ~ English mb[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Daume(n) thumb thumb *þūmô
Krume crumb crumb *krumô, *krūmô
schlummern, schlummerte, (ge)schlummert to slumber, to doze slumber, slumbered, slumbered Proto-Germanic *slūm-
Zimmer room timber *timrą
German n ~ English m[edit]
German /-n/ ~ English /-m/
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Boden ground bottom *butmaz
Busen breast bosom *bōsmaz
Faden thread fathom *faþmaz
Proto-Germanic *n[edit]
German , n ~ English , n[edit]

Both languages exhibit some tendency to drop the original *n.

German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
ander- [e.g. der andere] other other *anþeraz
Donnerstag Thursday Thursday *Þunras dagaz
ein- a, an a, an *ainaz
Ellenbogen elbow elbow *alinabugô
Gans [pl. Gänse] goose goose, geese *gans
Knoten knot knot
König king king *kuningaz
mein my my *mīnaz
Mund mouth mouth *munþaz
Natter grass-snake adder *nadrǭ
Rabe raven raven *hrabnaz
Stern star star *sternǭ
Waffe weapon weapon *wēpną
Wunsch wish wish
wünschen, wünschte, (ge)wünscht to wish wish, wished, wished *wunskijaną

Proto-Germanic Semivowels[edit]

Proto-Germanic *w[edit]
German Ø ~ English w[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Aue ewe ewe *awiz
brauen, braute, (ge)braut to brew brew, brewed, brewed *brewwaną
Eule owl owl *uwwalǭ
hauen, hieb/haute, (ge)hauen to beat, to hit, to hew (in stone) hew, hewed, hewn/hewed *hawwaną
kauen, kaute, (ge)kaut to chew chew, chewed, chewed *kewwaną
Klaue claw claw *klawō
Krähe crow crow *krāwō
roh raw raw *hrawaz
Schnee snow snow *snaiwaz
speien, spie, (ge)spien/(ge)spieen to spit (sth.), to vomit spew, spewed, spewed *spīwaną
streuen, streute, (ge)streut to spread, to strew strew, strewed, strewn/strewed *strawjaną
Stroh straw straw *strawą
Tau dew dew *dawwaz, *dawwą

Proto-Germanic Consonant Clusters[edit]

Proto-Germanic *liquid + velar stop[edit]
German lg ~ English llow[edit]

Proto-Germanic *z developed into Proto-West Germanic *r.

German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Balg hide, bellows bellow(s) *balgiz
Felge felly, rim fallow *falgō
folgen, folgte, (ge)folgt to follow follow, followed, followed *fulgijaną
schwelgen, schwelgte, (ge)schwelgt to indulge (in sth.), to wallow swallow, swallowed, swallowed *swelganą
Talg tallow, suet tallow *talgaz
German lg ~ English lly[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Balg hide, bellows belly *balgiz
Felge felly, rim felly *felgō
German rg ~ English ro, rough, rrow[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root}
Berg mountain barrow *bergaz
borgen, borgte, (ge)borgt to borrow, to lend borrow, borrowed, borrowed *burgōną
Burg castle, fortification boro *burgz
Burg castle, fortification borough *burgz
Morgen, morgen morning, tomorrow (to)morrow *murganaz, *murginaz
Sorge worry, concern, sorrow sorrow *surgō
German rg ~ English ry, rry[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root}
bergen, barg, (ge)borgen to recover so./sth., to rescue, to save so./sth. bury, buried, buried *berganą
karg meager, barren, poor chary *karagaz
würgen, würgte, (ge)würgt to strangle, to gag, to retch worry, worried, worried *wurgijaną
German rk ~ English rrow[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root}
Mark marrow marrow *mazgą
Proto-Germanic *stop + liquid[edit]
German gel ~ English l[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Hagel hail hail *haglaz
Nagel nail nail *naglaz
Schnegel slug snail *snagilaz
Segel sail sail *seglą
segeln, segelte, (ge)segelt to sail sail, sailed, sailed *seglōną, *siglijaną
Vogel bird fowl *fuglaz
Zagel [regional] tail tail *taglą
Ziegel brick, tile tile *tigulǭ
German ter, tter ~ English ther[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Mutter mother mother *mōdēr
Vater father father *fadēr
Wetter weather weather *wedrą
German tr ~ English dr[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
tragen, trug, (ge)tragen to carry, to bear, to wear draw, drew, drawn *draganą
tränken, tränkte, (ge)tränkt to water drench, drenched, drenched *drankijaną
Traum dream dream *draumaz
traurig sad dreary *dreuzagaz
treten, trat, (ge)treten tread tread, trod/tread, trodden/tread *tredaną, *trudaną
trinken, trank, (ge)trunken to drink drink, drank, drunk *drinkaną
Tropfen drop drop *drupô
Proto-Germanic *sibilant + nasal[edit]
German schm ~ English sm[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
schmal narrow small *smalaz
schmeißen, schmiss, (ge)schmissen to throw smite, smote, smitten/smited *smītaną
schmerzen, schmerzte, (ge)schmerzt to hurt smart, smarted, smarted *smertaną
Schmied smith smith *smiþaz
schmieren, schmierte, (ge)schmiert to smear smear, smeared, smeared *smirwijaną
schmuggeln, schmuggelte, (ge)schmuggelt to smuggle smuggle, smuggled, smuggled *smeuganą
German schn ~ English sn[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Schnee snow snow *snaiwaz
Schnegel slug snail *snagilaz
Schnur cord, string snare *snarhǭ
Proto-Germanic *gj[edit]
German ck ~ English dg[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Brücke bridge bridge *brugjǭ
Ecke corner, edge edge *agjō
Hecke hedge hedge *hagjō
Mücke midge, gnat, mosquito midge
Rücken back, ridge ridge *hrugjaz
Wecken [regional] loaf, roll wedge *wagjaz
Proto-Germanic *ht[edit]
German cht ~ English ght[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root}
acht eight eight *ahtōu
Bucht bay, bight, bight bight *buhtiz
dicht dense, tight tight *þinhtaz
fechten, focht, (ge)fochten to fence, to fight fight, fought, fought *fehtaną
Flucht flight flight *fluhtiz
Furcht fear fright
(Ge)wicht weight weight *wihtiz
(Ge)sicht face sight *sihtiz
Knecht servant knight *knehtaz
leicht easy, light light *linhtaz
Licht light light *leuhtą
Macht might, power might *mahtiz
Nacht night night *nahts
nicht not nought
Pflicht duty plight *plihtiz
Recht, recht right right *rehtaz
Schlacht killing, battle (on)slaught
schlecht bad slight *slihtaz
schlicht plain, simple slight *slihtaz
Sicht sight sight *sihtiz
Tochter daughter daughter *duhtēr
Proto-Germanic *hw[edit]
German ~ English gh /∅/[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
nah near nigh *nēhw
German ch ~ English gh /∅/[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
durch through thorough *þurhw
durch through through *þurhw
nach after nigh *nēhw
Nachbar neighbor neighbor *nēhwagabūrô
German w /v/ ~ English wh /ʍ/[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Wal whale whale *hwalaz
wann when when
was what what *hwat
weder neither whether *hwaþeraz
Weile while while *hwīlō
weiß white white *hwītaz
Weizen wheat wheat *hwaitijaz
welch- which which *hwilīkaz
Welpe puppy, cub whelp *hwelpaz
wenn if, when when
wie how why *hwī
wo where where *hwar
Proto-Germanic *lw[edit]
German lb ~ English llow[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
gelb yellow yellow *gelwaz
Schwalbe swallow (animal) swallow *swalwǭ
Proto-Germanic *mb[edit]
German mm ~ English mb[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
dumm dumb dumb *dumbaz
Kamm comb comb *kambaz
klimmen, klomm, (ge)klommen to climb climb, clomb/climbed, clumb/climbed *klimbaną
Lamm lamb lamb *lambaz
Proto-Germanic *mf[edit]
German nf ~ English f, v[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
fünf five five *fimf
sanft soft soft *samftijaz
Proto-Germanic *rs[edit]
German rsch ~ English ss[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root}
Arsch arse ass *arsaz
Barsch perch bass (fish) *barsaz
Proto-Germanic *sl[edit]
German schl ~ English sl[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root}
Schlacht killing, battle (on)slaught
schlecht bad slight *slihtaz
Schlehe sloe sloe
Schleim slime slime *slīmą
schlicht plain, simple slight *slihtaz
schlimm bad slim *slimbaz
schlürfen, schlürfte, (ge)schlürft to sip, to slurp slurp, slurped, slurped
Proto-Germanic *sw[edit]
German schw ~ English sw[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Schwalbe swallow (animal) swallow *swalwǭ
Schwan swan swan *swanaz
Schwarm swarm swarm *swarmaz
schwärmen, schwärmte, (ge)schwärmt to swarm, to adore, to gush swarm, swarmed, swarmed
Schwein swine swine *swīną
Schweiß sweat sweat *swait-
schwelgen, schwelgte, (ge)schwelgt to indulge (in sth.), to wallow swallow, swallowed, swallowed *swelganą
schwellen, schwoll, (ge)schwollen to swell swell, swelled, swollen/swelled *swellaną
Schwert sword sword *swerdą
schwimmen, schwamm, (ge)schwommen to swim swim, swam, swum *swimmaną
schwören, schwor, (ge)schworen to swear by/on so./sth. (NOT: to curse) swear, swore, sworn *swarjaną
Proto-Germanic *wr[edit]
German r ~ English wr[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
rächen, rächte, (ge)rächt to avenge, to take revenge wreak, wrought/wreaked, wrought/wreaked *wrekaną
Recke warror wretch *wrakjô
reißen, riss, (ge)rissen to tip, to tear write, wrote, written *wrītaną
ringen, rang, (ge)rungen to wrestle wring, wrang/wrung/wringed, wrung/wringed *wringaną
ritzen, ritzte, (ge)ritzt to carve, to scratch write, wrote, written *wrītaną

Proto-Germanic *∅[edit]

German d, t ~ English Ø[edit]
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Axt axe ax/axe *akwisī
Hüfte hip hip *hupiz
Mond moon moon *mēnô
Saft juice sap *sapą

Irregular and Singleton Cognates[edit]

German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Abend evening eve, even *ēbanþs
achtzig eighty eighty
Ameise ant ant *ēmaitijǭ
Arsch arse arse *arsaz
beid- both both
Blut blood blood *blōþą
bluten, blutete, (ge)blutet to bleed bleed, bled, bled *blōþijaną
Bräutigam bridegroom bridegroom *brūdigumô
Brodem vapor, strong smell breath *brēþiz
Donner thunder thunder *þunraz
Donnerstag Thursday Thursday *Þunras dagaz
dreißig thirty thirty *þrīz tigiwiz
dröge dull dry *drūgiz, *draugiz
Dunst damp, haze, mist dust *dustą, *dunstą
Eiland island island *awjōlandą
Elch elk elk *elhaz, *algiz
euch you you *izwiz
euer your your *izweraz
fassen, fasste, (ge)fasst to grab, to grasp fetch, fetched, fetched *fatōną
Freitag Friday Friday *Frijjōz dagaz
frieren, fror, (ge)froren to freeze, to be cold freeze, froze, frozen *freusaną
fünfzig fifty fifty *fimf tigiwiz
Furche furrow furrow *furhs
gehen, ging, (ge)gangen to go go, (went), gone *gāną
genug enough enough *ganōgaz
Habicht hawk hawk *habukaz
Hafen harbor haven *habnō
Hanf hemp hemp *hanapiz
Haupt- (prefix) main, major, chief head *haubudą
Haupt head head *haubudą
(ver)heeren, (ver)heerte, (ver)heert to devastate harry, harried, harried *harjōną
Hengst stallion hench(man) *hangistaz
Hirsch deer hart *herutaz
Hulst holly holly *hulisaz
ich I I *ik, *ek
jetzt currently, now yet
keck bold, perky quick *kwikwaz
Kloß lump, dumpling clod *klūtaz
Kloß lump, dumpling cloud *klūtaz
Knopf button, knob knob
können, konnte, (ge)konnt to can - (can), could, couth/could *kunnaną
Krippe crib crib *kribjǭ
Lenz spring Lent *langaz
machen, machte, (ge)macht to do, to make make, made, made *makōną
Magd maidservant maid *magaþs
Magd maidservant maid(en) *magaþs
manch- some many *managaz
mischen, mischte, (ge)mischt to mix mix, mixed, mixed *miskijaną
Molch salamander, newt mole
Montag Monday Monday *mēniniz dagaz
mürbe ‎ tender, soft mellow *marwaz
nackt naked naked *nakwadaz
nagen, nagte, (ge)nagt to gnaw gnaw, gnawed, gnawed *gnaganą
neunzig ninety ninety
nicht not not
Pflaume plum plum *prūmǭ
rauh/rau rough rough *rūhwaz
Regen rain rain *regnaz
Reich empire, realm (bishop)ric *rīkiją
Riege sports team row *raih-
Rogen roe (fish eggs) roe *hrugnaz
Ross horse horse *hrussą
saugen, saugte, (ge)saugt to suck suck, sucked, sucked *sūkaną, *sūganą
schichten, schichtete, (ge)schichtet to stack, to layer shift, shifted, shifted *skiftijaną
schlagen, schlug, (ge)schlagen to hit, to slay slay, slew, slain *slahaną
schlummern, schlummerte, (ge)schlummert to slumber, to doze slumber, slumbered, slumbered *slūm-
Schwester sister sister *swestēr
sechzig sixty sixty *sehs tigiwiz
selten rare, seldom seldom *seldana
siebzig seventy seventy
sollen, sollte, (ge)sollt shall, should, supposed to - (shall), should, should *skulaną
Sonntag Sunday Sunday *sunnōniz dagaz
Spinne spider spider *spinþrô
Steige hen-coop sty
Sumpf swamp swamp *sumpaz
Sünde sin sin *sundī
süß sweet sweet *swōtuz
Tracht garb draught/draft *drahtuz
treffen, traf, (ge)troffen to hit so./sth., to strike sth.; to meet so. drub, drubbed, drubbed *drepaną
uns us us *uns
unser our our *unseraz
vierzig forty forty *fedwōr tigiwiz
wirbeln, wirbelte, (ge)wirbelt to swirl, to whirl whirl, whirled, whirled *hwerbaną
zäh chewy, tough tough *tanhuz
Zahn, Zähne tooth tooth, teeth *tanþs
zeigen, zeigte, (ge)zeigt to show teach, taught, taught *taikijaną
zwanzig twenty twenty *twai tigiwiz
Zwerg dwarf dwarf *dwergaz

Archaic, Obsolete, Rare or Dialectical Cognates[edit]

Cases where either the German or the English or both members of the cognate pair are considered archaic, obsolete, rare, or dialectical in that language. Cases where the German cognate is in everyday use in modern standard German are marked with (SG); this is only indicated for the first principal part in the case of a verb or the singular in the case of a noun.

German cognate Modern English Cognate Meaning of German cognate Old English cognate Old Norse cognate Proto-Germanic root
Ameise (SG) emmet ant *ēmaitijǭ
Bär (SG) boar boar *bairaz
bleiben (SG);
blieb;
(ge)blieben
beleave;
beleft;
beleft
to remain *bilībaną
Bolle bowl bulb bolla,
bolle
bolli *bullô,
*bullǭ
Degen (SG) thane epee,
rapier,
hero (arch.),
warrior (arch.)
*þegnaz
dein (SG) thine your *þīnaz
dir (SG) thee you *þiz
Dorf (SG) thorp hamlet,
village,
town
*þurpą
drucken (SG);
druckte;
(ge)druckt
thrutch;
thrutched;
thrutched
to print
drücken (SG);
drückte;
(ge)drückt [SG]
thrutch;
thrutched;
thrutched
to press,
to push
du (SG) thou you *þū
Fachs fax head hair *fahsą
Friede(n) (SG) frith peace,
tranquility
*friþuz
German cognate Meaning of German cognate English cognate Proto-Germanic root
Frosch (SG) frog frosh *fruskaz
fürder(hin) henceforth further *furþeraz
gar (SG) cooked, done (food), even yar *garwaz
Heilige (SG) saint hallow *hailaz
Helm (SG) helmet helm *helmaz
Holz (SG) wood holt *hultą
ihr (SG) you ye *jūz, *jīz
jen- (SG) that yon *jainaz
Käu/Keu jaw, donkey jowl jaw
kennen, kannte, (ge)kannt [SG] to know ken, kent/kenned, kent/kenned *kannijaną
kiesen, kor, (ge)koren to choose choose, chose, chosen *keusaną
kipfen, kipfte, (ge)kipft to snip sth. chip, chipped, chipped
Knabe (SG) boy knave *knabô
Kobe(n) stable, shed, nook, pigsty cove *kubô
kund (SG) known couth *kunþaz
Lachs (SG) salmon lax *lahsaz
Leiche (SG) corpse lich *līką
leid (SG) sorry; [anguish] loth *laiþaz
lesen (SG), las, (ge)lesen to read (e.g. a book); to gather (e.g. berries) lease, leased, leased (gather) *lesaną
Leute (SG) people lede *liudiz
Morgen; morgen (SG) morning; tomorrow morn *murganaz, *murginaz
Morgen, morgen (SG) morning, tomorrow morrow *murganaz, *murginaz
Obst (SG) fruit ovest *ubatją
Pfühl pillow pillow
rauben (SG), raubte, (ge)raubt to rob reave, reft/reaved, reft/reaved *raubōną
röten (SG), rötete, (ge)rötet to redden rud, rudded, rudded *rudjaną
(Ge)sang (SG) chant, singing song *sangwaz
Schlacht (SG) killing, battle slaught
schreiben (SG), schrieb, (ge)schrieben to write shrive, shrove/shrived, shriven/shrived *skrībaną
Seil (SG) rope, cable, wire sole *sailą
spalten (SG), spaltete, (ge)spaltet to split spald, spalded, spalded
Suhle (SG) mire, wallow sole
Wagen (SG) car, vehicle wain *wagnaz
Wald (SG) forest weald/wold *walþuz
wehren (SG), wehrte, (ge)wehrt to defend, to fight wear, wore/weared, worn/weared (defend) *warjaną
werben (SG), warb, (ge)worben to recruit, to advertize wharve, whorf/wharved, whorven/wharved *hwerbaną
Wicht (SG) gnome wight *wihtiz
Wiebel beetle, chafer weevil
wissen (SG), wusste, (ge)wusst to know wit/wot, wist, wist *witaną
Wurm (SG) worm wyrm *wurmiz
Zähre tear tear *tahrą
zween two twain *twai
zwink(er)n (SG), zwink(er)t, (ge)zwink(er)t to blink, to wink twink, twinked, twinked

Borrowings into Proto-Germanic[edit]

Greek Borrowings into Proto-Germanic[edit]

Standard German cognate Modern English cognate Meaning of German cognate Old English cognate Old Norse cognate Proto-Germanic form Greek root
Kirche church church *kirikǭ κυριακὸυ δῶμα (kuriakòu dôma)

Latin Borrowings into Proto-Germanic[edit]

German cognate Modern English cognate Meaning of German cognate Old English Cognate Old Norse Cognate Proto-Germanic form Latin root
Drache drake dragon *drakô dracō
Meile mile mile *mīlijō mīlia
Mühle mill mill mylen molinum,
molinus
Müll(er) mill(er) miller molinum,
molinus
Pfund pound a measurement of mass,
500 grams
*pundą pondō
Straße street street strǣt *strātō via strāta

Borrowings into Proto-West Germanic, and Old German and Old English[edit]

While there are borrowings from Latin present in Proto-Germanic (e.g. 'mile' and 'pound'), this section lists borrowings from Latin occurring after the Proto-Germanic stage and up to the stages of Old English and Old High German. Thus, these Latin borrowings have occurred early enough that they are no longer recognizably foreign, and largely appear to obey the sound changes that occurred as the two languages evolved to the contemporary form.

Greek Borrowings into Proto-West Germanic, and Old German and Old English[edit]

German cognate Modern English cognate Meaning of German cognate Old English cognate Old Norse cognate Greek root
Teufel devil devil διάβολος (diábolos)

Latin Borrowings into Proto-West Germanic, and Old German and Old English[edit]

Standard German cognate Modern English cognate Meaning of German cognate Old English cognate Old Norse cognate Late Latin root
Altar altar altar altare
Bischof bishop bishop episcopus
falsch false false, wrong falsus
Kopf cup head cuppa
Kugel cowl hood, cowl cucullus
Kupfer copper copper cuprum
Mönch monk monk monachus
Nonne nun nun nonna
opfern;
opferte;
(ge)opfert
offer;
offered;
offered
to sacrifice offerō
Pfeffer pepper pepper piper
Schrein shrine shrine scrīnium

References[edit]

  1. ^ Beekes R. S. P., Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An introduction. — 2nd ed. — Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamin’s Publishing Company, 2011. — xxiv, 415 p. — P. 287. — →ISBN, →ISBN.
  2. ^ https://www.dwds.de/wb/laden
  3. ^ https://www.dwds.de/wb/Bahn