Appendix:German cognates with English/Mutually inherited borrowings

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Borrowings into Proto-Germanic[edit]

Latin Borrowings into Proto-Germanic[edit]

Standard German cognate Modern English cognate Meaning of German cognate Old English Cognate Old Norse Cognate Proto-Germanic form Latin root
Katze [f] cat cat catt kǫttr *kattuz cattus
Mühle [f] mill mill mylen molinum,
molinus
Müll(er) [m] mill(er) miller molinum,
molinus
Pfahl [m] pole pole pāl pālus
Pfanne [f] pan pan panne panna *pannǭ panna
Pfennig [m] penny a denomination of currency penning,
pening,
*panningaz
schreiben;
schrieb;
(ge)schrieben
shrive;
shrove/shrived;
shriven/shrived
to write sċrīfan *skrībaną scrībō
Ziegel [m] tile brick,
tile
tiġele *tigulǭ tēgula

Borrowings into Proto-West-Germanic[edit]

Greek Borrowings into Proto-West-Germanic[edit]

Standard German cognate Modern English cognate Meaning of German cognate Old English cognate Proto-West-Germanic form Greek root
Kirche [f] church church ċiriċe *kirikā κυριακὸυ δῶμα (kuriakòu dôma)

Latin Borrowings into Proto-West-Germanic[edit]

Standard German cognate Modern English cognate Meaning of German cognate Old English Cognate Proto-West-Germanic form Latin root
Butter [f] butter butter butere *buterā būtȳrum
Drache [m] drake dragon draca *drakō dracō
Kampf [m] camp battle,
fight,
struggle
camp *kamp campus
Käse [m] cheese cheese ċīese,
ċȳse,
ċēse
*kāsī cāseus
Kiste [f] chest box ċest,
ċist
*kistu cista
Meile [f] mile mile mīl *mīliju mīlia
Pflaume [f] plum plum plūme *plūmā prūnum
spenden;
spendete;
(ge)spendet
spend;
spent;
spent
to donate spendan *spendōn expendere
Straße [f] street street strǣt *strātu strāta
Tisch [m] dish table disċ *disk discus
Wall rampart,
mound,
embankment
wall weall *wall vallum
Wein [m] wine wine wīn *wīn vīnum

Borrowings into Old German and Old English[edit]

While there are borrowings from Latin present in Proto-Germanic (e.g. 'mile' and 'pound'), this section lists borrowings from Latin occurring after the Proto-Germanic stage and up to the stages of Old English and Old High German. Thus, these Latin borrowings have occurred early enough that they are no longer recognizably foreign, and largely appear to obey the sound changes that occurred as the two languages evolved to the contemporary form.

Latin Borrowings into Old German and Old English[edit]

Standard German cognate Modern English cognate Meaning of German cognate Old English cognate Old High German cognate Late Latin root
Abt [m] abbot abbot abbat abbās
Almosen [n] alms alms ælmesse eleēmosyna
Altar [m] altar altar alter,
altar
altare
Becher beaker beaker,
cup,
goblet
Bischof [m] bishop bishop biscop episcopus
Engel [m] angel angel enċġel angelus
falsch false false,
wrong
fals falsus
Fieber [n] fever fever fefor febris
Kappe cap cap;
hood
cappa
Kohl cabbage cole cāl,
cāul,
cāwel
caulis
Kohl cabbage kale cāl,
cāul,
cāwel
caulis
Kopf [m] cup head cuppe cuppa
Kufe coop vat,
tub
cūpa
Kugel [f] cowl hood,
cowl
cūle cucullus
Kupfer [n] copper copper coper,
copor
cuprum
Markt [m] market market market mercātus
Mönch [m] monk monk monachus
Münster [n] minster minster mynster monastērium
Nonne [f] nun nun nunne nonna
opfern;
opferte;
(ge)opfert
offer;
offered;
offered
to sacrifice offrian offerō
Pech [n] pitch pitch;
bad luck,
misfortune
piċ pix
Pfeffer [m] pepper pepper piper piper
Pflanze [f] plant plant plante planta
Pflaster [n] plaster band-aid,
plaster,
pavement
plaster emplastrum
Schrein [m] shrine shrine scrīnium
Tafel [f] table table,
slab,
board
tabele,
tabul,
tabule,
tabula
tabula
Teufel [m] devil devil deofol diabolus
Wanne [f] fan tub fann vannus