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This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Of unclear origin. Many regard the forms without the medial *-t- or *-d-* as the older ones because the Slavic and Lithuanian loans (Proto-Slavic *pěnędzь) do not show the reflex of a medial obstruent, which makes it difficult to connect with *pandan- (pledge) (Old High German phant) or their Latin etymon pondus (weight). The second part of the word is probably *-ingaz. The first part is possibly a borrowing of one of these Latin words:

  • panna (pan), with a semantic shift explained as a penny being a "coin with a concave form" (per De Vries/De Tollenaere), or
  • pannus (piece of cloth), because cloth was often used as means of payment.

Vennemann suggests another possibility, following from his (controversial) Punic superstrate theory: that *paning may derive from Carthaginian traders' jargon use of Punic 𐤐𐤍(pn /pani/, face) to mean "coin", as almost all Carthaginian coins depicted the face of Tanit (a goddess who was herself known as the "face of Baal"), and even the second-most common motif was the face of Melqart; Vennemann further speculates that the variants *panning and *panding preserved the bimoric nature of the Punic word.[1]



*panningaz, *pandingaz, *pantingaz m

  1. a coin, penny


masculine a-stemDeclension of *panningaz (masculine a-stem)
singular plural
nominative *panningaz *panningōz, *panningōs
vocative *panning *panningōz, *panningōs
accusative *panningą *panninganz
genitive *panningas, *panningis *panningǫ̂
dative *panningai *panningamaz
instrumental *panningō *panningamiz



  • Vasmer, Max (1964–1973) , “пенязь”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), translated from German and supplemented by Oleg Trubačóv, Moscow: Progress
  • Pronk-Tiethoff, Saskia E. (2013) The Germanic loanwords in Proto-Slavic[2] (in English), Amsterdam - New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 91f
  1. ^ Vennemann, Theo (2013) , Patrizia Noel Aziz Hanna, editor, Germania Semitica (Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs, No. 259)‎[1], Walter de Gruyter