Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/panningaz

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This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Germanic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Of unclear origin. Many regard the forms without the medial *-t- or *-d-* as the older ones because the Slavic and Lithuanian loans (Proto-Slavic *pěnędzь) do not show the reflex of a medial obstruent, which makes it difficult to connect with *pandan- (pledge) (Old High German phant) or their Latin etymon pondus (weight). The second part of the word is probably *-ingaz. The first part is possibly a borrowing of one of these Latin words:

  • panna (pan), with a semantic shift explained as a penny being a "coin with a concave form" (per De Vries/De Tollenaere), or
  • pannus (piece of cloth), because cloth was often used as means of payment.

Vennemann suggests another possibility, following from his (controversial) Punic superstrate theory: that *paning may derive from Carthaginian traders' jargon use of Punic 𐤐𐤍(pn /pani/, face) to mean "coin", as almost all Carthaginian coins depicted the face of Tanit (a goddess who was herself known as the "face of Baal"), and even the second-most common motif was the face of Melqart; Vennemann further speculates that the variants *panning and *panding preserved the bimoric nature of the Punic word.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

*panningaz, *pandingaz, *pantingaz m

  1. a coin, penny

Inflection[edit]

masculine a-stemDeclension of *panningaz (masculine a-stem)
singular plural
nominative *panningaz *panningōz, *panningōs
vocative *panning *panningōz, *panningōs
accusative *panningą *panninganz
genitive *panningas, *panningis *panningǫ̂
dative *panningai *panningamaz
instrumental *panningō *panningamiz

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • Vasmer, Max (1964–1973) , “пенязь”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), translated from German and supplemented by Oleg Trubačóv, Moscow: Progress
  • Pronk-Tiethoff, Saskia E. (2013) The Germanic loanwords in Proto-Slavic[2] (in English), Amsterdam - New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 91f
  1. ^ Vennemann, Theo (2013) , Patrizia Noel Aziz Hanna, editor, Germania Semitica (Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs, No. 259)‎[1], Walter de Gruyter