Appendix:German cognates with English/Regular cognates with differing consonant values/Proto-Germanic Liquids, Nasals and Semivowels

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Proto-Germanic Liquid Consonants[edit]

Proto-Germanic *l[edit]
German l, ll ~ English , l (∅)[edit]
Standard German cognate Modern English cognate Meaning of German cognate Old English cognate Old Norse cognate Proto-Germanic root
solch- such such swilċ *swalīkaz
welch- which which hwilċ *hwilīkaz
walken;
walkte;
(ge)walkt
walk;
walked;
walked
to churn,
to tumble sth.;
to knead (coll.)
wealcan *walkaną
Proto-Germanic *r, *z[edit]

Proto-Germanic *z developed into Proto-West Germanic *r. Both languages exhibit some tendency to drop the original *r.

German ~ English r[edit]
Standard German cognate Modern English cognate Meaning of German cognate Old English cognate Old Norse cognate Proto-Germanic root
da there there þār,
þǣr,
þēr
þar,
þær
*þar
Welt [f] world world worold *weraldiz
wo where where hwær *hwar
German r ~ English [edit]
Standard German cognate Modern English cognate Meaning of German cognate Old English cognate Old Norse cognate Proto-(West) Germanic ancestor
mir me me *miz
Sprache [f] speech language,
speech
spǣċ *sprāku
sprechen;
sprach;
(ge)sprochen
speak;
spoke;
spoken
to speak specan *sprekaną
wider with against wiþ
wieder with again wiþ
wir we we *wīz
Zwirn [m] twine thread twīn Proto-West Germanic *twiʀn

Proto-Germanic Nasal Consonants[edit]

Proto-Germanic *m[edit]
German m, mm ~ English mb[edit]
Standard German cognate Modern English cognate Meaning of German cognate Old English cognate Old Norse cognate Proto-Germanic root
Daume(n) [m] thumb thumb þūma *þūmô
Däum(ling) thimble thumbstall þȳmel *þūmilaz
Krume [f] crumb crumb cruma *krumô,
*krūmô
Krümel [m] crumb crumb cruma *krumô,
*krūmô
krümeln;
krümelte;
(ge)krümelt
crumble;
crumbled;
crumbled
to crumble
mümmeln;
mümmelte;
(ge)mümmelt
mumble;
mumbled;
mumbled
to nibble
nehmen;
nahm;
(ge)nommen
nimb(le) to take,
to seize;
to receive
*nemaną
nehmen;
nahm;
(ge)nommen
numb to take,
to seize;
to receive
*nemaną
schlummern;
schlummerte;
(ge)schlummert
slumber;
slumbered;
slumbered
to slumber,
to doze
*slūm-
Zimmer [n] timber room timber timbr *timrą
German n ~ English m[edit]
Standard German cognate Modern English cognate Meaning of German cognate Old English cognate Old Norse cognate Proto-Germanic root
Besen besom broom besema,
besma
Boden [m] bottom ground botm *butmaz
Busen [m] bosom breast bōsm *bōsmaz
Faden [m] fathom thread fæþm faðmr *faþmaz
Proto-Germanic *n[edit]
German , n ~ English , n[edit]

Both languages exhibit some tendency to drop the original *n.

Standard German cognate Modern English cognate Meaning of German cognate Old English cognate Old Norse cognate Proto-Germanic root
ander- (det.) other other ōþer *anþeraz
Bürde burde(n) burden;
weight
byrden *burþį̄;
Proto-West Germanic *burþini
Dunst [m] dust damp,
haze,
mist
dust dust *dustą,
*dunstą
ein- (det.) a,
an
a,
an
ān einn *ainaz
Ellboge(n) [m] elbow elbow elboga ǫlbogi *alinabugô
Ellenboge(n) [m] elbow elbow elboga ǫlbogi *alinabugô
Gans [f];
Gänse [pl.]
goose;
geese
goose gōs gás *gans
König [m] king king cyning konungr *kuningaz
mein my my mīn mínn *mīnaz
Mund [m] mouth mouth mūþ muðr *munþaz
Natter [f] adder grass-snake nǣdre *nadrǭ
Rabe [m] raven raven hræfn hrafn *hrabnaz
Stern [m] star star steorra *sternǭ
tagen;
tagte;
(ge)tagt
dawn;
dawned;
dawned
to meet;
to dawn
dagian *dagāną
unser our our ūre *unseraz
Waffe [f] weapon weapon wǣpen *wēpną
Wunsch [m] wish wish wȳsċan *wunskijaną
wünschen;
wünschte;
(ge)wünscht
wish;
wished;
wished
to wish wȳsċan *wunskijaną
Zwilling twinling twin

Proto-Germanic Semivowels[edit]

Proto-Germanic *w[edit]
German Ø ~ English w[edit]
Standard German cognate Modern English cognate Meaning of German cognate Old English cognate Old Norse cognate Proto-Germanic root
Aue [f] ewe ewe eowu ær *awiz
brauen;
braute;
(ge)braut
brew;
brewed;
brewed
to brew brēowan *brewwaną
Eule [f] owl owl ūle *uwwalǭ
hauen;
hieb/haute;
(ge)hauen
hew;
hewed;
hewn/hewed
to beat,
to hit,
to hew (in stone)
hēawan *hawwaną
kauen;
kaute;
(ge)kaut
chew;
chewed;
chewed
to chew ċēowan *kewwaną
Klaue [f] claw claw clawu kló *klawō
Krähe [f] crow crow crāwe *krāwō
roh raw raw hrǣw,
hrēaw,
hrēow,
hrā
hrár *hrawaz
Schnee [m] snow snow snāw snær *snaiwaz
speien;
spie;
(ge)spien/(ge)spieen
spew;
spewed;
spewed
to spit (sth.),
to vomit
spīwan spýja *spīwaną
streuen;
streute;
(ge)streut
strew;
strewed;
strewn/strewed
to spread,
to strew
strēawian strá *strawjaną
Stroh [n] straw straw strēaw strá *strawą
Tau [m] dew dew dēaw,
dēaw
*dawwaz,
*dawwą