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This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Uncertain. Possibly a fossilised form of the Proto-Indo-European thematic ablative *-eh₂d, in which case it would reflect earlier *-ôt before word-final -t was lost.



  1. -ly. Creates adverbs of manner from adjectives.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]


This suffix lost its function in some Middle West Germanic languages, where adverbs eventually became identical to the base adjectives they were formed from.

  • Old Saxon: -o
    • Middle Low German: -e
  • Old Dutch: -o
    • Middle Dutch: -e
  • Old High German: -o
    • Middle High German: -e
  • Old Norse: -a (may have merged with *-ê)
  • Gothic: -𐍉 ()