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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



See *kʷis.



  1. and
  2. Forms distributives from interrogatives.


  • Albanian: (perhaps) *tśe[1]
    • Albanian: s- / -s (not)
  • Anatolian:[2]
    • Hittite: [script needed] (=kku)
    • Classic Luwian: [script needed] (=ku)
    • Palaic: [script needed] (=ku)
  • Armenian:
    • Old Armenian: -եք (-ekʿ)
  • Germanic: *-hw
  • Hellenic: *kʷe
    • Mycenaean Greek: -𐀤 (--qe)
    • Ancient Greek: τε (te)
  • Indo-Iranian:
    • Indic:
      • Sanskrit: (ca)
    • Iranian:
  • Italic: *-kʷe[3]


  1. ^ Demiraj, Bardhyl (1997), “s-, -s”, in Albanische Etymologien: Untersuchungen zum albanischen Erbwortschatz [Albanian Etymologies: Investigaitons into the Albanian Inherited Lexicon] (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 7) (in German), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, page 276
  2. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-16092-7, pages 559-561
  3. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 506
  • Wikander, Ola (2008) Ett träd med vida grenar: de indoeuropeiska språkens historia (in Swedish), Stockholm: Prisma, ISBN 978-91-518-5139-6