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Q (charge) +‎ ball, coined by physicist Sidney Coleman.[1]


Q-ball (plural Q-balls)

  1. A charged soliton that represents the lowest possible energy state of its components and is therefore stable.
    • 2001, Tuomas Multamäki, “Q-ball Collisions in the MSSM”, in Strong and Electroweak Matter 2000, page 348:
      Q-ball collisions are studied numerically on a two dimensional lattice for a range of Q-ball charges.
    • 2008, Roger Ebert, Roger Ebert's Movie Yearbook 2009, page 880:
      If you're going to fly inside Mercury's orbit and hurl a bomb into the sun to burst its Q-ball (non-topological soliton) into pieces, I suggest that home may require a theoretical solution.
    • 2009, Noah Graham, Markus Quandt and Herbert Weigel, Specral Methods in Quantum Field Theory, page 171:
      A complex scalar theory in three dimensions with a cubic coupling can support classically stable, time-dependent, non-topological solutions to the equations of motion that carry a global charge Q, called Q-balls.


  1. ^ S. Coleman (1985), “Q-Balls”, in Nuclear Physics B, volume 262, issue 2, Bibcode1985NuPhB.262..263C, DOI:10.1016/0550-3213(85)90286-X, page 263