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This Proto-Celtic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative reconstructions[edit]


Possibly from Proto-Indo-European *(s)tewd- (to hit, beat), as in waves hitting against the shore. Or, it could instead be related to *tondā (surface, skin), if the original meaning was the surface of the sea, from *temh₁- (to cut).[2]

Zair alternatively reconstructs the term as *tusnā and provides an alternative derivation from Proto-Indo-European *tewh₂- (to swell).[1]


*tundā f[2][3]

  1. wave, billow


Feminine ā-stem
singular dual plural
nominative *tundā *tundai *tundās
vocative *tundā *tundai *tundās
accusative *tundam *tundai *tundāms
genitive *tundās *tundous *tundom
dative *tundāi *tundābom *tundābos
locative *tundai *? *?
instrumental *? *tundābim *tundābis


  • Proto-Brythonic: *tonn
  • Old Irish: tonn


  1. 1.0 1.1 Zair, Nicholas (2012) The reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European laryngeals in Celtic, Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 155
  2. 2.0 2.1 Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*tunda-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages 394
  3. ^ Koch, John (2004) English–Proto-Celtic Word-list with attested comparanda[1], University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies