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This Proto-Finnic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Proposed to derive from a derivative of the Indo-European root *h₂eHs- (to burn) similar to Proto-Germanic *askǭ (ashes).

The Estonian and Votic reflexes show a shift to a meaning 'birch', for which a likely intermediate is reflected in a dialectal Finnish meaning (Southwestern and Far Northern) 'young birch, birch shoots'. These have been earlier compared with the Permic words for 'birch' (Komi кыдз (kydz), Udmurt кыӟпу (kydźpu), from Proto-Uralic *kuće), but this has several phonetic difficulties.

Has also been compared to Armenian կեչի (kečʿi, birch).[1]



  1. swidden, slash-and-burned land
  2. copse, especially raised for burning



  • Estonian: kask (birch)
  • Finnish: kaski
  • Ingrian: kaski
  • Karelian: kaški
  • Ludian kašk
  • Veps: kask
  • Votic: kahtši (birch)


  • Itkonen, Erkki; Kulonen, Ulla-Maija, editors (1992–2000) Suomen sanojen alkuperä [The origin of Finnish words] (in Finnish), Helsinki: Institute for the Languages of Finland/Finnish Literature Society, →ISBN
  1. ^ J̌ahukyan, Geworg (1987) Hayocʿ lezvi patmutʿyun; naxagrayin žamanakašrǰan [History of the Armenian language: The Pre-Literary Period] (in Armenian), Yerevan: Academy Press, page 296