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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative reconstructions[edit]



  1. to be/become dry
  2. to burn, to glow
  3. hearth
  4. ashes

Derived terms[edit]

  • *h₂eHs-eh₁-(ye)- (stative)[1]
  • *h₂s-tḗr (star)
  • *h₂eHs-h₂- (hearth, fireplace)[1]
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: [script needed] c (ḫāššā-, fireplace, hearth)
      • Lycian: [script needed] c (xahadi-, altar)
    • Italic: *āzā (altar)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: [script needed] c (ḫāšš-, ash(es); dust; soap)
    • Germanic:
    • Indo-Iranian: *HáHsas
      • Indo-Aryan: *HáHsas
        • Sanskrit: आस (ā́sa, ashes, dust)
      • Iranian: *HáHhah
        • Ormuri: [script needed] (yānak, ash) < *ās-naka-
    • Tocharian:
      • Tocharian A: asatär (dries up)
      • Tocharian B: osotär (dries up)
  • enlarged with a dental
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: [script needed] (hāt-i) / [script needed] (hat-, to dry up, become parched)
    • Armenian:
      • Old Armenian: հաստեայ (hasteay, kind of pastry) (possibly)
      • Old Armenian: ոստին (ostin, dry) (possibly)
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Czech: ozditi (to dry malt)
      • Old Polish: ozd (dry malt)
    • Celtic: *ātis (furnace, oven)
      • Old Irish: áith (furnace, oven)
        • Irish: áith (drying kiln)
      • Middle Welsh: odyn (kiln)
        • Welsh: odyn (kiln)
    • Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: ἄζω (ázō, to dry)
    • Indo-Iranian:
      • Iranian:
        • Khotanese: [script needed] (astaucä, dry land)
        • → Old Armenian: աստուճ (astuč, dry (of bread))
    • Italic: *asso- (dried, roasted)
      • Latin: assus (roasted, baked)
  • enlarged with a velar
    • Armenian:
      • Old Armenian: աճիւն (ačiwn, ashes)
      • Old Armenian: ազազիմ (azazim, to grow dry)
      • Old Armenian: ասկն (askn, ruby) (possibly)
    • Germanic: (possibly) *askǭ (ash, ashes) (see there for further descendants)
    • Hellenic:
    • → Finnic: *kaski (swidden)


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 49, 53, 58f
  2. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001) Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 257–258
  3. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume I, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, pages 68–69
  • Lubotsky A. M. (1985), “The PIE word for ‘dry’”, in ZVS[1], volume 98, pages 1–10
  • Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 371f, 376f
  • Martirosyan, Hrach (2010) Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 7, 44, 118f
  • Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q., editors (1997) Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, page 170b