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This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.





From earlier *hafud, from Proto-Indo-European *káput. Cognate with Latin caput.

The original form in Germanic was *habudą, which has been retained in most North Germanic dialects, whereas some North Germanic dialects along with the West Germanic languages and Gothic have forms that go back to *haubudą or *haubidą. The diphthong may be due to metathesis, if one reconstructs the original paradigm nominative *hafuþ ~ genitive *habweþaz.[1][2]

The same root but with an alternate ending also appears in Germanic: *habulô (e.g. Old English hafola (head)). The presence of initial *-a- in both *habudą and *habulô remains unexplained.


  • IPA(key): /ˈxɑu̯.βu.ðɑ̃/



*haubudą n

  1. head


neuter a-stemDeclension of *haubudą (neuter a-stem)
singular plural
nominative *haubudą *haubudō
vocative *haubudą *haubudō
accusative *haubudą *haubudō
genitive *haubudas, *haubudis *haubudǫ̂
dative *haubudai *haubudamaz
instrumental *haubudō *haubudamiz



From *haubudą:

From *haubidą:

From *hafudą or *habudą:


  1. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 215.
  2. ^ Marstrander, Carl (1925) Klodvignavnet og den germanske dissimilationslov (in Norwegian), Oslo: Dybwad, page 25.