Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/(s)ḱeh₃-

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*(s)ḱeh₃-

  1. darkness, shadow

Derived terms[edit]

  • *(s)ḱeh₃-tó-s[1][2][3][4]
    • Celtic: *skātos (shadow) (see there for further descendants)
    • Hellenic: [Term?]
  • *(s)ḱéh₃-u-s ~ *(s)ḱh₃-éw-s
    • Germanic: *hēwijaz (dark blue) (see there for further descendants)
  • *(s)ḱéh₃-yo-s
    • Balto-Slavic: *śájas (shaded; blue)
      • Slavic: *sojь
        • Slavic: *osòjь (shaded place) (+ *ob-) (see there for further descendants)
        • Slavic: *soja (jay) (see there for further descendants)
  • *(s)ḱh₃-tú-s
    • Germanic: *skadwaz (shadow) (see there for further descendants)
*(s)ḱeh₃-i-[n 1]
  • *(s)ḱeh₃i-ro-s[7][4]
    • Balto-Slavic: *śáiˀras
      • Slavic: *śěrъ (grey) (possible Germanic loanword[8]) (see there for further descendants)
    • Celtic: *kēros[9]
      • Irish: cíar (dark brown)
      • Scottish Gaelic: ciar (dusky)
    • Germanic: *hairaz (grey) (see there for further descendants)
  • *(s)ḱih₃-wó-s[11][4]
    • Balto-Slavic: *śī́ˀwas (grey) (see there for further descendants)
    • Indo-Iranian: *ćyaHwás (dark-colored) (vṛddhi-derivation[4]) (see there for further descendants)
    • >? Celtic: *kiwos (fog)[12]
*(s)ḱeh₃-u-
  • *(s)ḱeh₃w-ō ~ *(s)ḱuh₃-nés
    • Germanic: *skuwwô (shadow, reflection) (see there for further descendants)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Alternative forms: ḱyeh₁-[5], ḱh₁ey-[4][6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) , “skot-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), Bern, München: Francke Verlag, pages 957
  2. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009) , “*skāto-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 340
  3. ^ Lubotsky, Alexander (1988) The System of Nominal Accentuation in Sanskrit and Proto-Indo-European[1], Brill, page 128
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Zair, Nicholas (2012) The reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European laryngeals in Celtic, Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages 105, 110
  5. 5.0 5.1 Pokorny, Julius (1959) , “k̑i̯ē-, k̑ī-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), Bern, München: Francke Verlag, pages 540-541
  6. ^ Lubotsky, A.M. (1989) , “Against a Proto-Indo-European phoneme *a”, in Vennemann, Th., editor, The New Sound of Indo-European, Essays in Phonological Reconstruction[2], Berlin - New York: Mouton de Gruyter, page 65
  7. ^ Schrijver, Peter C. H. (1991) The reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European laryngeals in Latin (Leiden studies in Indo-European; 2), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, page 91
  8. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) , “*haira-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 201
  9. ^ Koch, John (2004) , “*keiro-”, in English–Proto-Celtic Word-list with attested comparanda, University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies, page 84
  10. ^ Lubotsky, Alexander (2011) , “śyāmá-”, in The Indo-Aryan Inherited Lexicon (in progress) (Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Project), Leiden University
  11. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) , “*hēwja-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 224
  12. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages *kiw-o-–205
  13. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) , “*skuwwan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 452