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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



*h₁ed- (imperfective)[1]

  1. to eat

Derived terms[edit]

  • *h₁éd-ti ~ *h₁d-énti (athematic root present)
  • *h₁od-éye-ti (causative)
    • Proto-Germanic: *atjaną (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *Hādáyati
  • *h₁ōd-e/o- (a lengthened grade of disputed origin)[2]
  • *h₁ēd-so-
    • Proto-Germanic: *ēsaz (food, carrion, bait) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Tocharian:
      • Tocharian A: yats (skin)
      • Tocharian B: yetse (skin)
  • *h₁éd-tōr (eater)
  • *h₂eyeri-h₁d-to-
  • *h₁éd-nom (eaten)
  • *h₁éd-wr̥ ~ *h₁d-wén-s
    • Proto-Germanic: *etunaz (thematicized from *h₁ed-un-os) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Hellenic:
  • *n̥-h₁d-ti- (having no eating)[3][4]
    • Proto-Armenian:
    • Proto-Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: νῆστις (nêstis, not eating, fasting, sober (jejune))
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Proto-Albanian: *eda[5]
      • Albanian: ha (I eat) (with preservation of the laryngeal?)
    • Anatolian:


  1. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  2. ^ Martirosyan, Hrach (2010) Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden and Boston: Brill, page 644
  3. ^ Klingenschmitt, Gert (1982) Das altarmenische Verbum (in German), Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, page 67
  4. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (1988) “Laryngeal developments: A survey”, in Alfred Bammesberger, editor, Die Laryngaltheorie und die Rekonstruktion des indogermanischen Laut- und Formensystems, Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Carl Winter, page 78
  5. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. (1998) “ha”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden, Boston, Köln: Brill, →ISBN, pages 140-1