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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.






  1. to drive, particularly of animals


  • Proto-Indo-Iranian:
    • Proto-Indo-Aryan:
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
    • Proto-Baltic:
      • Lithuanian: kelti (to drive animals)
  • Proto-Germanic: *haldaną (to hold, keep)[1] (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Hellenic: *kelomai < *kel-etor
  • Proto-Hellenic: *keľľō < *kel-yeti
  • Proto-Italic:
    • Latin: celer (swift, fast)
  • Proto-Tocharian:[2]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Ringe, Donald, Taylor, Ann (2014) The Development of Old English (A Linguistic History of English; 2), Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 184:PWGmc *haldan
  2. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2013) “käl-”, in A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 181