Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/wers-

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*wers-[1][2]

  1. to wipe
  2. to drag (on the ground), sweep ~ thresh

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *wers- (wipe) not found
  • *wers-é-ti (simple thematic present)
    • Proto-Germanic: *werzaną (perhaps “to thresh” > “to mix up”) (see there for further descendants)
  • *wr̥s-é-ti ~ *wr̥s-ó-nti (tudati-type thematic present)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: [Term?]
      • Proto-Slavic: *vьrťi (to thresh) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Italic: *wors-e/o-
      • Latin: vorrō, verrō (to sweep clean) (see there for further descendants)
  • *wr̥s-tís
    • Proto-Germanic: *wurstiz
      • >? Proto-West Germanic: *wursti (sausage) (or from *wert- (to turn)) (see there for further descendants)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Proto-Albanian: *varsa
      • Albanian: zvarrë (being dragged on the ground, adverb), varrë
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
      • Latvian: vârsms (heap of corn, grain)
    • Proto-Germanic: [Term?]
      • Old Norse: vǫrr (stroke, pull of an oar)
    • >? Proto-Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: ἐρύω (erúō, to drag, pull)
    • >? Proto-Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: ἔρρω (érrhō, to go slowly, limp)

Root[edit]

*wers-[3][4][5][6]

  1. to rise; to raise, lift[6]
  2. to protrude; to be high (?)
  3. peak, height, top
  4. ? excrescence of the skin

Descendants[edit]

  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *warš- (see there for further descendants)

Derived terms[edit]

  • *wérs-t ~ *wr̥s-ént (root aorist)[6]
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian:
  • *wr̥s-yé-ti ~ *wr̥s-yó-nti (thematic present with suffix -yé/ó-)[6]
    • Proto-Anatolian: [Term?]
  • *wérs-mn̥
  • *wers-ó-s
    • Proto-Celtic: *werros (high(er))
      • Old Irish: ferr (better) (see there for further descendants)
  • *we/ors-u-
    • Proto-Italic: [Term?]
      • Latin: verrūca (wart; hillock) (see there for further descendants)
  • *wors-ó-s
    • >? Proto-Germanic: *warzaz (callus) (see there for further descendants)
  • *wérs-to
    • Proto-Anatolian: [Term?]
      • Hittite: [Term?] (/warštta(ri)/)
  • *wr̥s-u-
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *wíršus
      • Proto-Baltic: [Term?]
      • Proto-Slavic: *vьrxъ (top) (see there for further descendants)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “1. *u̯ers-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 690-691
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “ve/orrō, -ere”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 666
  3. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “2. *u̯ers-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 691
  4. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “verrūca”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 666
  5. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*warza-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 575
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008), “u̯arš-tta(ri), u̯aršii̯e/a-zi”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 969–971
  7. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008), “u̯aršii̯att-”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 969–971