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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



*wert- (imperfective)[1][2]

  1. to turn, to rotate

Derived terms[edit]

  • *wért-ti ~ *wr̥t-énti (athematic root present)
  • *wért-e-tor (thematic middle)
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *wártatay
  • *wr̥t-éh₁-ti (éh₁-stative)
  • *wert-ye- (ye-present)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: [Term?]
  • *we-wórt-e ~ *we-wr̥t-ḗr (stative)
  • *wort-éye-ti (causative)
  • *wr̥t-ís
    • Proto-Germanic: *wurdiz (fate) (see there for further descendants)
  • *wert-en-om
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: [Term?]
    • Proto-Slavic: *verteno (see there for further descendants)
  • *wért-mn̥
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Proto-Albanian: *writja[3]
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: [Term?]
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian:
      • Proto-Iranian:
        • Middle Persian: [script needed] (wrd-)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: [Term?]
    • Proto-Germanic: *werþaz, *wardaz (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Celtic: *wertos
      • Proto-Brythonic: *gwerθ (possibly Germanic borrowing) (see there for further descendants)


  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7)‎[1], Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  2. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  3. ^ Orel, Vladimir (1998), “rris”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden, Boston, Cologne: Brill, →ISBN, page 387