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This Proto-Kartvelian entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Probably borrowed from Proto-Indo-European *we/oi(H)nyo-,[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] via — according to some — Proto-Armenian *ɣʷeinyo-,[8][9][10][11][12] the ancestor of Old Armenian գինի (gini).

Martirosyan describes the sound change from Proto-Indo-European *w → Proto-Armenian *ɣʷ → Proto-Kartvelian *ɣw as impeccable[8] and says it is also observed in Proto-Indo-European *wi(H)- → Proto-Armenian *ɣʷi- (→ Old Armenian գի (gi, juniper)) → Proto-Kartvelian *ɣwi- → Georgian ღვია (ɣvia, juniper). According to others, however, the term was borrowed into Proto-Kartvelian directly from Proto-Indo-European;[2] for example, Klimov (1998) agrees with the ultimate Proto-Indo-European origin of the word but denies derivation from Old Armenian գինի (gini), citing Diakonoff: "It cannot go back to Armenian gini because the change *g probably must have been accomplished there long before the first Kartvelian-Armenian contacts in the 7th–6th centuries B.C.".

Some scholars have argued the native Kartvelian origin of the word. For example, G. Tsereteli argued that the Proto-Indo-European *wóyh₁nom was in fact borrowed from Kartvelian via Semitic,[13] which has been accepted by other scientists.[14][15] Fähnrich, rejecting the Indo-European origin also considered the word to be a native South Caucasian formation derived from the Proto-Kartvelian verbal root *ɣun- (to bend) (whence Georgian ღუნვა (ɣunva), გადაღუნავს (gadaɣunavs), etc).[16]

The ending of Svan ღვინ-ელ (ɣvin-el), ღვინ-ა̈ლ (ɣvin-äl) represents a petrified diminutive affix.



  1. wine



  1. ^ Gamkrelidze, Th. V.; Ivanov, V. V. (1995) Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans. A Reconstruction and Historical Analysis of a Proto-Language and Proto-Culture. Part I: The Text (Trends in linguistics. Studies and monographs; 80), Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, page 560
  2. 2.0 2.1 The Sound of Indo-European: Phonetics, Phonemics, and Morphophonemics, p. 505+
  3. ^ Asya Pereltsvaig, Martin W. Lewis (2015). The Indo-European Controversy, Cambridge University Press, p. 193-195
  4. ^ Klimov, G. A. (1964), “ɣwino”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ kartvelʹskix jazykov [Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages] (in Russian), Moscow: USSR Academy of Sciences, pages 203–204
  5. ^ Klimov, Georgij A. (1998), “*ɣwino-”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages (Trends in linguistics. Documentation; 16), New York, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, page 227
  6. ^ Yoël L. Arbeitman (2000), The Asia Minor Connexion: Studies on the Pre-Greek Languages in Memory of Charles Carter, Peeters Publishers.
  7. ^ Anna Siewierska (1998), Constituent Order in the Languages of Europe, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter
  8. 8.0 8.1 Martirosyan, Hrach (2010), “gini”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 214
  9. ^ Ačaṙean, Hračʿeay (1971), “գինի”, in Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words] (in hy), volume I, 2nd edition, Yerevan: University Press, page 559
  10. ^ Starostin, S. A. (2005), “*ɣwino-”, in Kartvelian etymological database compiled on the basis of G. Klimov's and Fähnrich-Sarjveladze's etymological dictionaries of Kartvelian languages
  11. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume II, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 1059
  12. ^ Olsen, Birgit Anette (2017), “Armenian”, in Mate Kapović, editor, The Indo-European Languages (Routledge Language Family Series), 2nd edition, London, New York: Routledge, page 429
  13. ^ Giorgi Tsereteli (1972) Eastern Philosophy, Tbilisi: Tbilisi State University press
  14. ^ Anna Meskhi (August, 2005), “The Totem and the Old World. The Caucasus - The Mediterranean - The Pyrenees: Review”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[1], archived from the original on 2011, retrieved 27 June 2016
  15. ^ Alvaro C. Jimenez (2008) Understanding Wine[2], page 3
  16. ^ Fähnrich, Heinz (2007), “*ɣwin-”, in Kartwelisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch [Kartvelian Etymological Dictionary] (Handbuch der Orientalistik; VIII.18) (in de), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 486