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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *dzaʔ (Schuessler, 2007)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *dz(y)a-k/n/t/s (Matisoff, STEDT); *dzya-n/k (Mortensen, 2012); *dza (Weidert, 1987; Michailovsky, 1991; Benedict, 1972); *dza-n ⪤ dza-k (Matisoff, 1983); *dzɑ (Chou, 1972)

Some consider Chinese to be a reflex of this root; according to the latest reconstructions, and its cognates are probably best listed under *m/s/g-ljak (to lick).

Compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *caʔ (to eat).



  1. to eat
  2. food
  3. to feed (?)
  4. rice


  • Old Chinese: (*ʔsaʔ, zaʔ (ZS), to taste, to savour), (*zaːg, zaːgs (ZS), (ancient Chu dialect) to eat), (*tsʰˁar (B-S, unlisted), *sʰaːn (ZS), to eat)
    (Note: may alternatively (and perhaps more preferably) be compared with WT འཚལ་བ ('tshal ba, (archaic) to eat, to fill the belly), ཚལ་མ (tshal ma, breakfast).)
    • Middle Chinese: (tsɨʌX, dzɨʌX, to chew), (dzɑk, dzuoH), (tsʰɑn, meal)
      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (, /t͡ɕy²¹⁴/), (cān, /t͡sʰan⁵⁵/)
  • Himalayish
  • Tangut-Qiang
    • rGyalrongic
      • Japhug: ndza (eat)
      • Situ: ndza (eat)
      • Tshobdun: ⁿdzē (eat)
      • Zbu: ⁿdzē ~ ⁿdzī (eat)
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: စား (ca:, to eat, to consume; to erode, to corrode)
      • Loloish
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (zze, to eat (non-liquid food))

See also[edit]