cruach

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Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /kɾˠuəx/
  • (Ulster) IPA(key): /kɾˠɔx/ (when unstressed in the phrase cruach fhéir (hayrick) /kɾˠɔxˈeiɾʲ/)[1]

Etymology 1[edit]

From crua (hard) +‎ -ach.

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

cruach f (genitive singular cruach)

  1. steel (metal alloy)
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle Irish crúach, Old Irish crúach (stack; mountain, hill), from Proto-Celtic *krowko- (heap), probably from Proto-Indo-European *krā(u)- (to heap up), shared with Proto-Germanic *hraukaz (heap), Lithuanian krûvà (heap).[2][3]

Noun[edit]

cruach f (genitive singular cruaiche, nominative plural cruacha)

  1. stack (of corn or hay), pile
  2. (geography) hill, mountain
Declension[edit]

Verb[edit]

cruach (present analytic cruachann, future analytic cruachfaidh, verbal noun cruachadh, past participle cruachta)

  1. (transitive) stack; pile
Conjugation[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
cruach chruach gcruach
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Descendants[edit]

  • English: croagh
  • Yola: kurkeen

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Quiggin, E. C. (1906) A Dialect of Donegal, Cambridge University Press, page 14
  2. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “krowko”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages 226-27
  3. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 3, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 1513

Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Irish crúach (stack of corn; rick; heap, conical pile; mountain, hill), from Proto-Celtic *krowko- (heap), probably from Proto-Indo-European *krā(u)- (to heap up), shared with Proto-Germanic *hraukaz (heap), Lithuanian krûvà (heap).[1][2]

Noun[edit]

cruach f (genitive singular cruaiche, plural cruachan)

  1. pile, heap, stack
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Irish crúachaid (heaps, piles), from crúach (heap, pile).

Verb[edit]

cruach (past chruach, future cruachaidh, verbal noun cruachadh, past participle cruachte)

  1. pile or heap up
  2. make into a stack

Mutation[edit]

Scottish Gaelic mutation
Radical Lenition
cruach chruach
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “krowko”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages 226-27
  2. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 3, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 1513