- The belief and theory of Gaia model of interconnectedness of biosphere on Earth.
- 2000, Kate Zernike, "School Puts a New Spin On Earth Day After Suit", The New York TImes, 29 April 2000:
- Among their complaints was that discussions of the earth as creator were included in Earth Day celebrations, which the parents said constituted gaiaism, or the organized worship of the earth.
- 2004, Steven Hart, "Who’s Sauron — bin Laden or Bush?", Salon, 28 February 2004:
- The alert evangelicals at the ChildCare Action Project cite “The Two Towers” for no fewer than 17 “offenses to God,” including “gaiaism” (walking, talking trees — oh dear), “mockery of the Transformation” (Gandalf’s second coming is a bit close to, well, the Second Coming) and “miraculous reverse aging” (presumably the spontaneous makeover Theoden undergoes once Saruman’s possession is thrown off).