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Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *ìkádà.[1]

Hinde (1904) records makarra as an equivalent of English charcoal in “Jogowini dialect” of Kikuyu, listing also Kamba makaa and Swahili makaa ya miti as its equivalent.[2]


As for Tonal Class, Benson (1964) classifies this term into Class 3 with a disyllabic stem, together with kĩhaato, mbembe, kiugo, and so on.


ikara class 5 (plural makara)

  1. (chiefly in plural) charcoal

Etymology 2[edit]


ikara (infinitive gũikara)

  1. to sit[4][5]
  2. to stay, to remain[4][6]
  3. to dwell[4]
Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Clements, George N. and Kevin C. Ford (1979). "Kikuyu Tone Shift and Its Synchronic Consequences", p. 187. In Linguistic Inquiry, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 179–210.
  2. ^ Hinde, Hildegarde (1904). Vocabularies of the Kamba and Kikuyu languages of East Africa, pp. 12–13. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  3. ^ Yukawa, Yasutoshi (1981). "A Tentative Tonal Analysis of Kikuyu Nouns: A Study of Limuru Dialect." In Journal of Asian and African Studies, No. 22, 75–123.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Armstrong, Lilias E. (1940). The Phonetic and Tonal Structure of Kikuyu, p. 361. Rep. 1967. (Also in 2018 by Routledge).
  5. ^ Barlow, A. Ruffell (1960). Studies in Kikuyu Grammar and Idiom, pp. 45, 204.
  6. ^ Barlow, op. cit., p. 34.