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See also: jh, JH, and Jh.





 interrogative enclitic (‘dependent’) pronoun

  1. what?

Usage notes[edit]

In contradistinction to mj, this pronoun can only be used of animals and inanimate objects.

This form of pronoun is an enclitic that must directly follow the word it modifies. Its meaning depends on its context:

  • When it follows a verb, it indicates the object of the verb.
  • In the second and third person when it follows an adjective, it forms the subject of an adjectival sentence.
  • When it follows a relative adjective, such as ntj, ntt, or jsṯ, it indicates the subject of the relative clause (usually only in the first person singular and third person common).
  • When it follows an imperative, it indicates the object of the verb.
  • When it follows a particle like m.k, it indicates the subject of the clause.
  • When attached to a preposition, it indicates the object of the preposition.

Derived terms[edit]





  1. then, thus; introduces a clause with consequent optative meaning, expressing something the speaker wishes or requests to happen as a result

Usage notes[edit]

This particle is used almost exclusively with a following verb in the subjunctive. It is especially common in requests made by a person of higher social status to one of lower status.


  • Allen, James (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, revised second edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 193, 254
  • Hoch, James (1997) Middle Egyptian Grammar, Mississauga: Benben Publications, →ISBN, page 89
  • Faulkner, Raymond (1962) A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford: Griffith Institute, →ISBN