perforce

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English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English par force, from Anglo-Norman, from Old French par force (by force)

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

perforce (not comparable)

  1. (archaic) By force.
    • 1593William Shakespeare, Richard III, Act iii, scene 1 (First Folio)
      If ſhe denie, Lord Hastings goe with him,
      And from her iealous Armes pluck him perforce.
    • 1610, The Tempest, by Shakespeare, act 5 scene 1
      For you, most wicked sir, whom to call brother
      Would even infect my mouth, I do forgive
      Thy rankest fault; all of them; and require
      My dukedom of thee, which, perforce, I know
      Thou must restore.
  2. Necessarily.
    • 1813Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, ch. 17
      Mr. Wickham's happiness and her own were perforce delayed a little longer, and Mr. Collins's proposal accepted with as good a grace as she could..
    • 1922, James Joyce, Ulysses, Episode 16
      So, bevelling around by Mullett's and the Signal House which they shortly reached, they proceeded perforce in the direction of Amiens street railway terminus
    • 2006 — Alejandro Portes, Rubén G. Rumbaut, Immigrant America: A Portrait, 3rd ed., page 239
      Adult immigrants must perforce learn some English, and their children are likely to become English monolinguals.

Quotations[edit]

Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

perforce (third-person singular simple present perforces, present participle perforcing, simple past and past participle perforced)

  1. (obsolete) To force; to compel.