zvērs

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Latvian[edit]

Zvēri

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *žwēras (perhaps Proto-Balto-Slavic *źwēris), from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰwer-os (wild animal), which may come from the stem *gʰē-, *ǵʰē- (to yawn; to open one's jaws), which would suggest as the original meaning “one that opens its jaws (as if to bite, to attack).” Cognates include Lithuanian žvėris, Old Prussian swirins ([zwirins]) (accusative plural), Sudovian wirza ([vīrza] may be a metathesis of [zvīra]), Proto-Slavic *zvěrь (Old Church Slavonic звѣрь (zvěrĭ), Russian зверь (zverʹ), Belarusian звер (zvjer), Ukrainian звір (zvir), Bulgarian звяр (zvjar), Czech zvěř, Polish zwierz), Ancient Greek θήρ (thḗr) (Eolic dialect φήρ (phḗr)), Latin ferus, fera “beast; wild, savage.”[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

zvērs m (1st declension)

  1. beast, (wild) animal (usually a mammal)
    kažokādu zvērifur animals
    plēsīgie zvēribeasts of prey
    zvēru pēdas mežāanimal footprints, trails in the forest
    zvēru ādasanimal furs
    medīt zvērusto hunt (wild) animals
    zvēru dārzszoo (lit. (wild) animal garden)
    zvēru ķēniņšthe king of beasts (= the lion)
    pirmā sastapšanas ar polāro vilku, pašu dižāko šīs sugas zvēru, notika negaidītithe first encounter with the polar wolf, the largest beast of this species, happened unexpectedly
    meža zvēri līdz šim vēl nav iemanījušies attaisīt arī tāpat vien aizvērtas durvisforest animals have not so far found a way to open closed doors just like that
  2. (of people) beast (a particularly evil, heartless, ruthless person)
    tas tak ir īsts zvērs, kurš nepiedod nevienam ne mazākā pārkāpuma!but that one (guy) is a real beast who does not forgive anyone even the slightest offense
    Juļus... neesi zvērs... te tu mani nobendēsi... laid!Juļus... don't be a beast'... you will kill me here... let go!
  3. (in the genitive, used adjectivally) very big; extraordinary
    gandrīz visiem, izņemot galda saimnieci, ir zvēra apetītealmost everyone, except the hostess, has a big (lit. a beast's) appetite
    bet vispirms gan vajag iedzert pa tasei tējas, ārā būs zvēra aukstumsbut first of all (we) have to drink a cup of tea each, outside it will be very (lit. a beast's) cold

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “zvērs”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7