հարկ

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Armenian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Armenian յարկ (yark).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

հարկ (hark)

  1. floor, storey
    այս շենքն ունի հինգ հարկays šenkʿn uni hing hark ― this building has five floors
  2. roof
    մեկ հարկի տակ ապրելmek harki tak aprel ― to live under one roof
Declension[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Armenian հարկ (hark).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

հարկ (hark)

  1. necessity, need
    հարկ չկա անհանգստանալուhark čʿka anhangstanalu ― there is no need to worry
    հարկ համարելhark hamarel ― consider it necessary
Declension[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Old Armenian հարկ (hark).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

հարկ (hark)

  1. tax
    հարկեր վճարելharker včarel ― to pay taxes
  2. tribute
    հարկ դնելhark dnel ― to lay under tribute
Declension[edit]

Old Armenian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Ačaṙyan does not separate from հարկ (hark, tribute, tax) and հարկանեմ (harkanem, to beat), deriving all from the same Proto-Indo-European root, on which see հարկանեմ (harkanem). J̌ahukyan separates the three words and derives հարկ (hark, necessity; compulsion) from Proto-Indo-European *pr̥-g-, from *per- (to try, to dare, to risk; danger), with cognates such as Old Armenian փորձ (pʿorj), Ancient Greek πεῖρα (peîra), Gothic 𐍆𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌹𐌽𐌰 (fairina, crimination), Old Norse fár (bale, harm). See Pokorny for this root.

Noun[edit]

հարկ (hark

  1. necessity, want, need
    հարկ էhark ē ― one must, it is necessary
    հարկ էրhark ēr ― it was necessary
    չէ հարկ, չէ ինչ հարկčʿē hark, čʿē inčʿ hark ― it is not necessary, there is no need, no matter
    հարկ դժնդակhark džndak ― shocking necessity
    առանց հարկիaṙancʿ harki ― without necessity
    հարկաւ, ի հարկէ, առ հարկիharkaw, i harkē, aṙ harki ― necessarily, of necessity, essentially; inevitably, indispensably
    հարկ ի վերայ կայ ինձhark i veray kay inj ― necessity obliges me to
    հարկ եղեւ նմա բողոքել ի կայսրնhark ełew nma bołokʿel i kaysrn ― he was obliged to appeal to Caesar
    հարկ եղեւ մեզ առնելhark ełew mez aṙnel ― we were obliged, compelled or constrained to do
    հարկ է ինձ երթալhark ē inj ertʿal ― I must go
    ըստ հարկի ժամանակինəst harki žamanakin ― according to the wants of the age
    մեռցուք եթէ հարկ լիցիmeṙcʿukʿ etʿē hark licʿi ― let us die if it must be!
  2. compulsion, force
    հարկաւ, ի հարկէ, առ հարկիharkaw, i harkē, aṙ harki ― by force, by compulsion, forcibly
    հարկ առնելhark aṙnel ― to force, to constrain, to use violence
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • հարկ in Mathias Bedrossian (1879), New Dictionary Armenian–English, Venice: S. Lazarus Armenian Academy
  • հարկ in Gabriēl Awetikʿean, Xačʿatur Siwrmēlean, Mkrtičʿ Awgerean (1836–37), Nor baṙgirkʿ haykazean lezui [New Dictionary of the Armenian Language], in 2 vols, Venice: S. Lazarus Armenian Academy, volume II, pages 62–63
  • հար in Hračʿeay Ačaṙean (1971–79), Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words], in 4 vols (second edition), Yerevan: Yerevan State University, volume III, pages 52–55
  • Julius Pokorny (1959), Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, in 3 vols, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, volume III, page 818
  • հարկ in Geworg J̌ahukyan (ed. by Vahan Sargsyan) (2010), Hayeren stugabanakan baṙaran [Armenian Etymological Dictionary], Yerevan: Asoghik, ISBN 978-9939-50-121-5, page 452a

Etymology 2[edit]

Ačaṙyan does not separate from հարկ (hark, necessity, want) and հարկանեմ (harkanem, to beat), deriving all from the same Proto-Indo-European root, on which see հարկանեմ (harkanem). J̌ahukyan separates the three words and after Bailey derives հարկ (hark, tribute; tax) from Iranian; compare Parthian 𐭇𐭓𐭊 (hark-) (in 𐭇𐭓𐭊𐭐𐭕𐭉 (harkpat, receiver general)), Middle Persian hlg (harg, duty, tribute; work, effort), Khotanese [script?] (harga-, tax), Aramaic 𐡄𐡋𐡊 (hēleḵ, tribute), and Arabic خرج (xarj), possibly from Iranian.

Noun[edit]

հարկ (hark

  1. tribute; penalty; tax, impost, duty, excise
    հարկս հարկանելharks harkanel ― to pay a tribute; to be tribute to
    ընդ հարկաւ արկանել, ի հարկի կացուցանելənd harkaw arkanel, i harki kacʿucʿanel ― to place or lay under contribution, to tax, to load or burden with imposts, to levy contributions, to render tributary, to subdue, to subject, to enslave, to subjugate
    հարկ վերադիրhark veradir ― additional tax
    հարկ տարապայմանhark tarapayman ― over-assessment
    հարկ հանելhark hanel ― to gather in, to exact tribute, to raise money, to put a tax on
    հատուցանել զհարկ շնորհապարտ մեծարանացնhatucʿanel zhark šnorhapart mecaranacʿn ― to pay the tribute of gratitude
  2. duty, service
    ի հարկի կալ, մտանել ի հարկi harki kal, mtanel i hark ― to serve, to subject oneself to, to submit
  3. collection (an act of collecting money to help a charity or during a church service)
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • հարկ in Mathias Bedrossian (1879), New Dictionary Armenian–English, Venice: S. Lazarus Armenian Academy
  • հարկ in Gabriēl Awetikʿean, Xačʿatur Siwrmēlean, Mkrtičʿ Awgerean (1836–37), Nor baṙgirkʿ haykazean lezui [New Dictionary of the Armenian Language], in 2 vols, Venice: S. Lazarus Armenian Academy, volume II, page 62bc
  • հար and հարկ in Hračʿeay Ačaṙean (1971–79), Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words], in 4 vols (second edition), Yerevan: Yerevan State University, volume III, pages 52–55, 60
  • “harga-” in Harold W. Bailey (1979), Dictionary of Khotan Saka, Cambridge, London, New York, Melbourne: Cambridge University press, page 469a
  • Geworg J̌ahukyan (1987), Hayocʿ lezvi patmutʿyun; naxagrayin žamanakašrǰan [History of the Armenian language: The Pre-Written Period], Yerevan: Academy of Sciences of the Armenian SSR, page 531
  • "harg" in David Neil MacKenzie (1986), A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary, London: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-713559-5, page 43
  • հարկ in Geworg J̌ahukyan (ed. by Vahan Sargsyan) (2010), Hayeren stugabanakan baṙaran [Armenian Etymological Dictionary], Yerevan: Asoghik, ISBN 978-9939-50-121-5, page 452a