Holy Spirit

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English[edit]

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Etymology 1[edit]

From holy + spirit, a calque of the Vulgate Late Latin Spiritus Sanctus and Ancient Greek Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον (Pneûma tò Hagion, from πνεῦμα (pneûma, "breath, vital force, soul") + ἅγιος (hágios, "holy")), a calque of Rabbinic Hebrew רוח הקודש (ruacḥ ha-kodesh, from רוח (ruacḥ, "wind; breath; spirit") + קודש (kodesh, "holiness")) from earlier רוח יהוה (ruach Yahweh, "wind &c. of the LORD").

Proper noun[edit]

Holy Spirit

  1. (Christianity) The aspect (hypostasis) of the Trinity or Godhead corresponding to divine essence present in the faithful (particularly inspired prophets) and considered to proceed either from (Eastern Orthodoxy) God the Father alone or (Roman Catholicism) from Him together with God the Son.
    • 1731, Alexander Campbell (editor), The Millennial Harbinger, volume 2, “Dialogue on the Holy Spirit”, page 553:
      The Holy Spirit is now the Spirit of Christ as it was once known by the title of the Spirit of God.
  2. (Judaism) The spirit of God, especially the gifts of wisdom and prophecy.
Usage notes[edit]

This expression has superseded the term Holy Ghost in many Christian denominations and Bible translations.

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Etymology 2[edit]

A translation of Arabic الروح القدس (al-Rūḥ al-Quds, Holy Spirit), a calque of the Ancient Greek and Hebrew senses above.

Proper noun[edit]

Holy Spirit

  1. (Islam) The spirit of God, especially in its inspiration of prophets and quickening of fetuses.
  2. (Islam) The archangel Gabriel.