desmit

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the noun desmits (group of ten), from *desimtis by metathesis, from Proto-Baltic *dešimtis, from Proto-Indo-European *déḱm̥t (ten) with a suffix -(t)i-s marking collective number (“group of ten”). The Proto-Indo-European form is itself complex, including an element *ḱm̥t, possibly from *ḱomt (hand) (> German Hand, Dutch, English hand), in which case *de-ḱm̥t would mean originally “two hands.” Cognates include Lithuanian dẽšimt, Old Prussian dessimpts ([desimts]), Old Church Slavonic дєсѧть (desętĭ), Russian, Ukrainian десять (désjat'), Belarusian дзесяць (dzésjac'), Bulgarian десет (déset), Czech deset, Polish dziesięć, Gothic 𐍄𐌰𐌹𐌷𐌿𐌽 (taihun), Old Norse tiund, Old High German zëhan, German zehn, English ten, Sanskrit दश (dáśa), Ancient Greek δέκα (déka), Latin decem.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Latvian cardinal numbers
 <  9 10 11  > 
    Cardinal : desmit
    Ordinal : desmitais
    Multiplier : desmitreiz
    Nominal : desmitnieks
    Fractional : desmitdaļa
Latvian Wikipedia article on desmit
(file)

Numeral[edit]

desmit

  1. ten (the cipher, the cardinal number ten)
    skaitīt līdz desmit — to count to ten
    pieci un pieci ir desmit — five plus five is ten
    desmit un desmit ir divdesmitten plus ten is twenty
  2. ten (an amount equal to ten)
    desmit āboluten apples
    samaksāt desmit latu — to pay ten lats
    nobraukt desmit kilometru — to travel ten kilometers
    desmit gados man jāapmāca... — in ten years I have to train, instruct...
  3. ten o'clock (a moment in time; ten hours after midnight, or after noon)
    pulkstenis ir desmit — it is ten o'clock
    lekcija sākas desmitos — the lesson begnis at ten o'clock
    jāgaida līdz desmitiem — (we) must wait until ten o'clock

Declension[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “desmit” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.