uguns

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Latvian[edit]

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 Uguns on Latvian Wikipedia

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Uguns

Etymology[edit]

From an earlier feminine i-stem ugunis (still attested in old folk songs), from Proto-Baltic *ugnis, from *ungnis, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁n̥gʷnis, the “animate” or “sacred” word for “fire” (there was another, more “parochial” or “prophane” term, *péh₂ur, which in Baltic languages survived only as Old Prussian panno). The initial vowel u is irregular; to account for it, some have suggested variation in Indo-European (*egnis ~ *ognis ~ *n̥gnis < *h₁n̥gʷnis), and others the influence of *ūden- on a previous Proto-Baltic *agnis; cf. a-initial relics like Latvian agns (enthusiastic, passionate), Lithuanian agnùs (energetic, strong). Cognates include Lithuanian ugnìs, dialectal ùgnis, ùgnė, Proto-Slavic *ognь (Old Church Slavonic огнь (ognǐ), Russian, Ukrainian огонь (ogón’), Belarusian агонь (ahón’), Bulgarian огън (ógǎn), Czech oheň, Polish ogień), Sanskrit अग्नि (agní), Latin ignis.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Noun[edit]

uguns f (6th declension)

  1. fire (visible light and thermal radiation produced by a body heated to the necessary temperature; flames, group of flames)
    uguns kuras — the fire is burning
    uguns deg krāsnī — the fire is burning in the oven
    uguns apdziest — the fire goes out
    iekurt uguni — to kindle the fire
    izdzēst, nodzēst uguni — to put out the fire
    nopūst uguni — to blow out the fire
    uzšķilt uguni — to strike a fire
    kurināt uguni — to stoke the fire
    iesviest papīru ugunī — to throw paper into the fire
    uguns svelmefire glow
    uzlikt katlu uz uguns — to put a pot on the fire
    sildīties pie uguns — to warm up by the fire
    uguns siena, jūra, vilnisfire wall, see, wave
    uguns pielūgšana, kultsfire worship, cult
    lēna uguns — slow fire (= with a small flame)
    strauja uguns — rapid fire (= with a big, strong flame)
    uguns trako — the fire is raging
    mūžīgā uguns — eternal fire
    olimpiskā uguns — Olympic fire
  2. fire (a means of igniting fire, such as matches, lighters, etc., or combustible matter, fuel, etc., used to make fire or keep it burning]])
    viens ieprasās: “vai kādam ir uguns? kā uzpīposim, kad būsim paēduši?” — someone asked: “does anyone have fire / a light? (or else) how will we smoke, after we eat?”
  3. (figuratively) fire, light (feeling of warmth, often signifying power, strength)
    Meļķis dzēra; patīkama uguns izskrēja caur dzīslām — Meļķis drank; a pleasant fire ran through his veins
    vai kāds vairs prot veco krusta deju, kur bija straujums un plašums? uguns svila dzīslās, un grūti bija norimties vien — does anyone still know the old cross dance, in which there was speed and breadth? fire burned in the vains, and it was difficult to calm down alone
  4. (figuratively, usually plural) fire (bright light; bright color)
    debesis sāk degt saulrieta ugunīs — the sky began to burn in the fires of the sunset
  5. (figuratively) fire (passion, sexual and otherwise; strong enthusiasm)
    Edgara acis liesmoja, viņā noskatoties, un viņa skūpstos bija uguns, no kuras Kristīne nodrebēja — Edgar's eyes were ablaze, looking at her, and in his kisses there was a fire from which Kristīne shivered
    kā gan aktieris var tēlot... bez garīgas radošas uguns? — how can an actor act... without a creative spiritual fire?
    viņa acīs mirdzēja tāda savāda uguns — in his eyes a peculiar fire was shining
    Lauris bija tas uguns, kas visiem iedvesa dedzību un sparu — Lauris was that fire which inspired zeal and vigor to all
    revolūcijas uguns vēl neslāpa 1906. gadā; taču līdzskrējēji jau nogāja malā, slēpās — the revolutionary fire was not stifled in 1906; on the contrary, (its) supporters went into hiding
  6. artificial light(s), light source(s)
    luksoforā deg sarkanā uguns — the red traffic fire (= light) is on
    pilsētas ugunis — city fire (= lights)
    ostas ugunis — port fire (= lights)
    bāku uguns — beacon, lantern fire (= light)
    krāsainās reklāmu ugunis — red advertising fires (= lights)
    automobiļa aizmugures ugunis — a car's rear fires (= lights)
    logā deg ugunsfire is (= lights are) burning on the window
    krita pavasara krēsla... tramvaji jau brauca ar uguņiem' — spring dusk fell... the trams were already riding with their fires (= lights) (on)
  7. (military) shooting with firearms
    atklāt ugunī — to open fire
    pārtraukt uguni — to cease fire
    artilērijas uguns — artillery fire, gunfire
    tanku, granātu, ložu uguns — tank, grenade, bullet fire

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “uguns” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7