čakls

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Latvian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Derived from an obsolete verb tekt ‎(to rush, to run, to flow), from Proto-Indo-European *tekʷ- ‎(to run, to flow), whence also tecēt ‎(to flow); the meaning changed from “moving quickly” to “working hard.” The ea change parallels tecēt, taka ‎(path). The tč change (palatalization) is not regular in Latvian, which suggests either an expressive or affective feature (compare aiča, meiča, from aita ‎(sheep), meita ‎(girl, daughter)), or the former existence of parallel forms with a and e: *tekls + *takls*tʲakls; compare dialectal čekls ([tʃækls]). Note that the same stem also palatalized in Tocharian cake (“river”), Avestan 𐬙𐬀𐬐 ‎(tak, stream, torrent); since both the ancient Balts and the Tocharians were in direct contact with Northern Iranian tribes, this palatalization may be the result of Iranian influence. Cognates include Sanskrit तकुः ‎(tákuḥ, hurried, quick, mobile), तक्वः ‎(takváḥ, fast, quick) (compare तक्ति ‎(takti, to hurry), Scythian taka ‎([tʲaka], quick, strong), Ossetian тӕх ‎(tæx, quick stream, torrent; quick, fast, turbulent; dedicated), Ancient Greek ταχύς ‎(takhús, swift, quick, agile).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

čakls (def. čaklais, comp. čaklāks, sup. visčaklākais; adv. čakli)

  1. industrious, hard-working, diligent (who works well, who works a lot)
    čakls darbinieksindustrious employee
    čakls skolniekshard-working student
    čaklākā stradniece — the most industrious (female) worker
    čakls kolektīvshard-working team
    čakls kā skudra, kā biteindustrious as an ant, a bee (i.e., very industrious)

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “čakls”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7