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See also: galotnē





From gals (end) +‎ -otne. This word was first used in the grammatical sense of “ending” by Andrejs Stērste in 1879 and was soon accepted into the standard language.[1]


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galotne f (5th declension)

  1. (of trees, plants) top of the foliage, highest branches; thin, growing end of a trunk, branch, stem or root; highest part
    ozola, bērza, egles galotneoak, birch, fir top
    krūma, zara galotnebush, branch end, tip
    vēja šūpojas bērzu galotnesthe wind is swaying the tips, tops of the birch trees
    nocirst kokam galotnito cut off the tip of the tree (= of the top branches)
    nokniebt saknes galotnito nip off the tips of the roots
    stumbrs un katrs zars aug ar galotnithe trunk and every branch grow from (lit. with) the tip
  2. (of hills, mountains, waves, etc.) top, summit, apex, highest part
    klinšu galotnestops of the rocks
    kalna galotnetop of the hill
    baltas viļņu galotnesthe white tops of the waves
  3. (of lungs, hearts) apex, farthest extremity
    plaušu, sirds galotnethe apex of the lungs, of the heart
    sirds augšdaļu, no kuras atiet asinsvadi, sauc par pamatu, bet apakšdaļu - par galotnithe upper part of the heart, from which the blood vessels leave, is called base, and the lower part (is called) apex
  4. (of chess, checkers) final stage, end part (of a match)
    viņš labi pārzina šaha spēles stratēģiju un ir visai izveicīgs galotnēhe is well acquainted with the strategy of the game of chess and is very skillful at the final stage (of a match)
  5. (linguistics, grammar) ending (the part at the end of a word that changes when it is conjugated, declined, etc.; the final, inflectional suffix of an inflected word)
    lietvārda galotnesnoun endings
    noteiktā galotnedefinite ending (i.e., definite form)
    nenoteiktā galotneindefinite ending (i.e., indefinite form)
    norīt galotnesto swallow the endings (i.e., to pronounce the word endings badly, unclearly, or not at all)






  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992) “gals”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, →ISBN