δῖος

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See also: Δῖος and Διός

Ancient Greek[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Hellenic *diyyos, from Proto-Indo-European *diwyós (heavenly), from *dyew- (sky) +‎ *-yós. Cognate with Sanskrit दिव्य (divyá), Latin dīus, and related to Ζεύς (Zeús, Zeus), Latin deus (god), and the first element of English Tuesday. The Indo-Iranian and Greek terms (which are formally identical[1]) may alternatively be independently formed to to the root *dyew-.[2]

The feminine nominative and accusative δῖᾰ (dîa) (attested alongside the expected δῑ́ᾱ (dī́ā)), earliest used in substantive function "goddess",[1] is similar in formation and meaning to Sanskrit देवी (devī́, goddess, celestial), though it is likely formed independently to Proto-Indo-European *deywós (god),[3][4] and thus not inherited from Proto-Indo-European *déywih₂ (goddess).

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Adjective[edit]

δῖος (dîos)

  1. (poetic) heavenly, divine, noble (Homeric epithet of persons and gods)
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 1.5–7:
      Διὸς δ’ ἐτελείετο βουλή,
      ἐξ οὗ δὴ τὰ πρῶτα διαστήτην ἐρίσαντε
      Ἀτρεΐδης τε ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν καὶ δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς.
      Diòs d’ eteleíeto boulḗ,
      ex hoû dḕ tà prôta diastḗtēn erísante
      Atreḯdēs te ánax andrôn kaì dîos Akhilleús.
      and the will of Zeus was fulfilled,
      starting when they first stood apart and quarreled:
      [Agamemnon] the son of Atreus, lord of men, and divine Achilles.

Usage notes[edit]

Homer uses the set phrases ἅλα δῖαν (hála dîan) and ἠῶ δῖαν (ēô dîan) to describe the sea and the dawn. Commentators have suggested the translations "bright" and "boundless."[5]

Inflection[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “δῖος”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 338
  2. ^ Mayrhofer, Manfred (1992), “divyá-”, in Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen [Etymological Dictionary of Old Indo-Aryan]‎[1] (in German), volume 1, Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, page 727
  3. ^ Mayrhofer, Manfred (1992), “devī́-”, in Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen [Etymological Dictionary of Old Indo-Aryan]‎[2] (in German), volume 1, Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, page 744
  4. ^ Meier-Brügger, Michael (2002) Indogermanisches Sprachwissenschaft, 8th edition, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, W. 202, page 287
  5. ^ Anthon, The first six books of Homer's Iliad : with English notes, critical and explanatory, a metrical index, and Homeric glossary, p. 150