զ-

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Old Armenian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • ս- (s-) (before voiceless consonants and only for the first sense)

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰō- (behind; after; for). Cognates include Russian за (za), Lithuanian ažù (behind, after, for, beyond) and Latvian àiz (behind, beyond).

Preposition[edit]

զ- (z-)

  1. Intensifying particle, appended to the word to amplify its meaning. Used extensively in Old Armenian, dead in modern Armenian.
    ականեմ‎ ― akanemI look
    զականեմ‎ ― zakanemI look intently
  2. marking the definite accusative case
    սիրել զԱստուած‎ ― sirel zAstuacto love God
    տեսանել զարեգակն‎ ― tesanel zaregaknto see the sun
    ուտել զհաց‎ ― utel zhacʿto eat bread
    փրկեա՛ զմեզ ի չարէն‎ ― pʿrkeá zmez i čʿarēnsave us from evil!
  3. (with dative) to (only with հարկանեմ (harkanem) and զարկեմ (zarkem))
    զահի հարկանել‎ ― zahi harkanelto be afraid
    զամօթի հարկանել‎ ― zamōtʿi harkanelto be shy
    ծափ զծափի հարկանել‎ ― capʿ zcapʿi harkanelto clap
  4. (with ablative) about, of (this usage was called “narrative case” by older grammarians)
    խօսել զնմանէ‎ ― xōsel znmanēto speak of him
    որ չարախօսեսցէ զհօրէ կամ զմօրէ, մահու վախճանեսցի‎ ― or čʿaraxōsescʿē zhōrē kam zmōrē, mahu vaxčanescʿihe who speaks ill of his father or mother shall die
    զկիտացն ասեմ եւ զդելփինաց‎ ― zkitacʿn asem ew zdelpʿinacʿI am talking about whales and dolphins
    զի՞նչ դոքա զքէն վկայեն‎ ― zi?nčʿ dokʿa zkʿēn vkayenwhat do these tell about you?
    ուսուցանէ զբարւոյ և զարդարոյ և զչարէ‎ ― usucʿanē zbarwoy ew zardaroy ew zčʿarēteaches about the good and the just and the bad
    ինձ ոչ է փոյթ զայնմանէ‎ ― inj očʿ ē pʿoytʿ zaynmanēI don't care about that thing
    տրտնջել զեղբարացն‎ ― trtnǰel zełbaracʿnto complain about the brothers
  5. (with ablative) from
    առեալ զձեռանէ նորա‎ ― aṙeal zjeṙanē noraholding from his hand
    կախեալ զբարձր զաշտարակէն‎ ― kaxeal zbarjr zaštarakēnhanging from a high tower
  6. (with ablative) after, in order to obtain
    երթալ զոսկւոյ‎ ― ertʿal zoskwoyto go and fetch gold, or in order to bring gold
    առաքել զջրոյ‎ ― aṙakʿel zǰroyto send in order to bring water
    ...տաճիկ ուղտուք արձակէ ի Հայս արս զհողոյ և զջրոյ‎ ― ...tačik ułtukʿ arjakē i Hays ars zhołoy ew zǰroyhe sends men with swift camels into Armenia to get the earth and the water
  7. (with instrumental) round, around, about (this usage was called “circumlative case” by older grammarians)
    շուրջ զքաղաքաւն էին‎ ― šurǰ zkʿałakʿawn ēinthey were around the town
    արկանել զնովաւ‎ ― arkanel znovawto put on him
    զայնու ժամանակաւ‎ ― zaynu žamanakawaround that time
    զհասարակ գիշերաւ, զմէջ գիշերաւ‎ ― zhasarak gišeraw, zmēǰ gišerawaround midnight
    զինն ժամու‎ ― zinn žamuaround 9 o'clock
    անկաւ զպարանոցաւ նորա‎ ― ankaw zparanocʿaw norafell around his neck
  8. (with instrumental) marks the indirect object with some verbs
    եւ ոչ անցանեն զչափով‎ ― ew očʿ ancʿanen zčʿapʿovand they don't cross the boundaries
    զտաճարաւն այպն առնէին‎ ― ztačarawn aypn aṙnēinthey were mocking the temple
    ածել զբոցով‎ ― acel zbocʿovto pass above the flame, to singe
    անցուցանել զամենեքումբք‎ ― ancʿucʿanel zamenekʿumbkʿto surpass, to surmount, to excel more than all
  9. (with instrumental) found in numerous idioms
    զմտաւ ածել‎ ― zmtaw acelto think
    զսրով երթալ‎ ― zsrov ertʿalto die by sword
    զսիրով գալ‎ ― zsirov galto fall in love
    զանձամբ գալ‎ ― zanjamb galto take care about oneself
    զձեռօք ածել‎ ― zjeṙōkʿ acelto obtain

Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]

  • Petrosean, H. Matatʿeay V. (1879), “զա”, in Nor Baṙagirkʿ Hay-Angliarēn [New Dictionary Armenian–English], Venice: S. Lazarus Armenian Academy
  • Abrahamyan, Ašot (1976) Grabari jeṙnark [A Handbook of Old Armenian] (in Armenian), 4th edition, Yerevan: Luys
  • Ačaṙean, Hračʿeay (1971–1979), “զ-”, in Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words] (in Armenian), 2nd edition, Yerevan: University Press, published 1926–1935
  • J̌ahukyan, Geworg (2010), “զ-”, in Sargsyan, Vahan, editor, Hayeren stugabanakan baṙaran [Armenian Etymological Dictionary] (in Armenian), Yerevan: Asoghik, ISBN 978-9939-50-121-5