զ-

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Old Armenian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • ս- (s-) (before voiceless consonants and only for the first sense)

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰō- (behind; after; for). Cognates include Russian за (za), Lithuanian ažù (behind, after, for, beyond) and Latvian àiz (behind, beyond).

Preposition[edit]

զ- (z-)

  1. Intensifying particle, appended to the word to amplify its meaning. Used extensively in Old Armenian, dead in modern Armenian.
    ականեմakanemI look
    զականեմzakanemI look intently
  2. marking the definite accusative case
    սիրել զԱստուածsirel zAstuacto love God
    տեսանել զարեգակնtesanel zaregaknto see the sun
    ուտել զհացutel zhacʿto eat bread
    փրկեա՛ զմեզ ի չարէնpʿrkeá zmez i čʿarēnsave us from evil!
  3. (with dative) to (only with հարկանեմ (harkanem) and զարկեմ (zarkem))
    զահի հարկանելzahi harkanelto be afraid
    զամօթի հարկանելzamōtʿi harkanelto be shy
    ծափ զծափի հարկանելcapʿ zcapʿi harkanelto clap
  4. (with ablative) about, of (this usage was called “narrative case” by older grammarians)
    խօսել զնմանէxōsel znmanēto speak of him
    որ չարախօսեսցէ զհօրէ կամ զմօրէ, մահու վախճանեսցիor čʿaraxōsescʿē zhōrē kam zmōrē, mahu vaxčanescʿihe who speaks ill of his father or mother shall die
    զկիտացն ասեմ եւ զդելփինացzkitacʿn asem ew zdelpʿinacʿI am talking about whales and dolphins
    զի՞նչ դոքա զքէն վկայենzi?nčʿ dokʿa zkʿēn vkayenwhat do these tell about you?
    ուսուցանէ զբարւոյ և զարդարոյ և զչարէusucʿanē zbarwoy ew zardaroy ew zčʿarēteaches about the good and the just and the bad
    ինձ ոչ է փոյթ զայնմանէinj očʿ ē pʿoytʿ zaynmanēI don't care about that thing
    տրտնջել զեղբարացնtrtnǰel zełbaracʿnto complain about the brothers
  5. (with ablative) from
    առեալ զձեռանէ նորաaṙeal zjeṙanē noraholding from his hand
    կախեալ զբարձր զաշտարակէնkaxeal zbarjr zaštarakēnhanging from a high tower
  6. (with ablative) after, in order to obtain
    երթալ զոսկւոյertʿal zoskwoyto go and fetch gold, or in order to bring gold
    առաքել զջրոյaṙakʿel zǰroyto send in order to bring water
    ...տաճիկ ուղտուք արձակէ ի Հայս արս զհողոյ և զջրոյ...tačik ułtukʿ arjakē i Hays ars zhołoy ew zǰroyhe sends men with swift camels into Armenia to get the earth and the water
  7. (with instrumental) round, around, about (this usage was called “circumlative case” by older grammarians)
    շուրջ զքաղաքաւն էինšurǰ zkʿałakʿawn ēinthey were around the town
    արկանել զնովաւarkanel znovawto put on him
    զայնու ժամանակաւzaynu žamanakawaround that time
    զհասարակ գիշերաւ, զմէջ գիշերաւzhasarak gišeraw, zmēǰ gišerawaround midnight
    զինն ժամուzinn žamuaround 9 o'clock
    անկաւ զպարանոցաւ նորաankaw zparanocʿaw norafell around his neck
  8. (with instrumental) marks the indirect object with some verbs
    եւ ոչ անցանեն զչափովew očʿ ancʿanen zčʿapʿovand they don't cross the boundaries
    զտաճարաւն այպն առնէինztačarawn aypn aṙnēinthey were mocking the temple
    ածել զբոցովacel zbocʿovto pass above the flame, to singe
    անցուցանել զամենեքումբքancʿucʿanel zamenekʿumbkʿto surpass, to surmount, to excel more than all
  9. (with instrumental) found in numerous idioms
    զմտաւ ածելzmtaw acelto think
    զսրով երթալzsrov ertʿalto die by sword
    զսիրով գալzsirov galto fall in love
    զանձամբ գալzanjamb galto take care about oneself
    զձեռօք ածելzjeṙōkʿ acelto obtain

Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]

  • Petrosean, H. Matatʿeay V. (1879), “զա”, in Nor Baṙagirkʿ Hay-Angliarēn [New Dictionary Armenian–English], Venice: S. Lazarus Armenian Academy
  • Abrahamyan, Ašot (1976) Grabari jeṙnark [A Handbook of Old Armenian] (in Armenian), 4th edition, Yerevan: Luys
  • Ačaṙean, Hračʿeay (1971–1979), “զ-”, in Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words] (in Armenian), 2nd edition, Yerevan: University Press
  • J̌ahukyan, Geworg (2010), “զ-”, in Sargsyan, Vahan, editor, Hayeren stugabanakan baṙaran [Armenian Etymological Dictionary] (in Armenian), Yerevan: Asoghik