խաչ

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Armenian[edit]

Cross on the wall of the Armenian monastery Goshavank

Etymology[edit]

From Old Armenian խաչ (xačʿ).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

խաչ (xačʿ)

  1. cross (geometrical figure)
  2. (Christianity) the cross
    սուրբ խաչsurb xačʿholy cross
  3. (figuratively) cross, sorrows, tribulation
  4. (card games) club

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Suits in Armenian · համագույն խաղաթուղթ (hamaguyn xałatʿułtʿ) (layout · text)
SuitHearts.svg SuitDiamonds.svg SuitSpades.svg SuitClubs.svg
սիրտ (sirt) ագուռ (aguṙ), քյարփինջ (kʿyarpʿinǰ), քյափ (kʿyapʿ) ագռավ (agṙav), ղառ (łaṙ), մաչայ (mačʿay) խաչ (xačʿ), խաչիկ (xačʿik), ճանճ (čanč)

Old Armenian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The origin is uncertain.

Lidén connects with Persian خاده(xāda, pole; stake; gibbet), Lithuanian kótas (broomstick), Latvian kāts (handle, shaft), and derives all from Proto-Indo-European.[1][2] This is accepted by Ačaṙean, who adduces also Old Armenian խոչ (xočʿ, a piece of wood, stone protruding from ground upon which one may stumble, an obstacle) and խէչ (xēčʿ), խեչ (xečʿ, prop, stay, on which plants are supported) as ablaut grades.[3]. If this is correct, the initial meaning of խաչ (xačʿ) was "stake, stick, upright pile". For the sense development compare Georgian ჯვარი (ǯvari), Ancient Greek σταυρός (staurós, upright stake or pile; crucifix), Gothic 𐌲𐌰𐌻𐌲𐌰 (galga, stake; cross; gallows), Manichaean Parthian 𐫅𐫀𐫡(dʾr /dār/, tree, gallows, cross; wood).

Olsen rejects the above etymology on phonetic grounds.[4]

The words for "Christian cross" in neighbouring languages are certainly borrowed from Christian Armenians, in some cases possibly via Persian خاچ(xāč).[5][6][7][8]

Noun[edit]

խաչ (xačʿ)

  1. crucifix
    ի խաչ հանելi xačʿ hanelto crucify
    կախել զխաչէkaxel zxačʿēto crucify
    ի խաչ ելանելi xačʿ elanelto be crucified
    սուրբ խաչsurb xačʿthe Cross, the Holy Rood
  2. (Christianity) the cross
    խաչ առնել, հանելxačʿ aṙnel, hanelto make the sign of the cross, to cross oneself
  3. (figuratively) cross, sorrows, tribulation

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lidén, Evald (1927), “Der armenische Name des Kreuzes”, in Handes Amsorya[1] (in German), volume 41, issue 11–12, columns 765–766
  2. ^ Lidén, Evald (1929), “Zur vergleichenden Wortgeschichte”, in Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der Indogermanischen Sprachen[2] (in German), volume 56, issue 3/4, pages 211—212
  3. ^ Ačaṙean, Hračʿeay (1973), “խաչ”, in Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words] (in Armenian), volume II, 2nd edition, Yerevan: University Press, pages 333—335
  4. ^ Olsen, Birgit Anette (1999) The noun in Biblical Armenian: origin and word-formation: with special emphasis on the Indo-European heritage (Trends in linguistics. Studies and monographs; 119), Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, page 955
  5. ^ Solta, G. R. (1960) Die Stellung des Armenischen im Kreise der indogermanischen Sprachen (Studien zur armenischen Geschichte; 9) (in German), Vienna: Mechitharisten, pages 308—309
  6. ^ Räsänen, Martti (1969) Versuch eines etymologischen Wörterbuchs der Türksprachen (in German), Helsinki: Suomalais-ugrilainen seura, page 151b
  7. ^ Asatryan, Gaṙnik (1990), “Ardyokʿ ka?n haykakan pʿoxaṙutʿyunner nor parskerenum [Are There Armenian Borrowings in New Persian?]”, in Patma-banasirakan handes [Historical-Philological Journal]‎[3] (in Armenian), issue 3, page 144 of 139–144
  8. ^ Dankoff, Robert (1995) Armenian Loanwords in Turkish (Turcologica; 21), Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, page 162

Further reading[edit]

  • Awetikʿean, G.; Siwrmēlean, X.; Awgerean, M. (1836–1837), “խաչ”, in Nor baṙgirkʿ haykazean lezui [New Dictionary of the Armenian Language] (in Old Armenian), Venice: S. Lazarus Armenian Academy
  • Petrosean, H. Matatʿeay V. (1879), “խաչ”, in Nor Baṙagirkʿ Hay-Angliarēn [New Dictionary Armenian–English], Venice: S. Lazarus Armenian Academy