اسفناج

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Persian[edit]

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Alternative forms[edit]


Etymology[edit]

Kulturwörter of Iranian origin. According to Asatrian, there were probably two forms in late Middle Iranian, *ispanāg (or *ispināg) and (the dialectal) *ispanāx (or *ispināx), yielding Arabized forms إِسْفَنَاج / إِسْفِنَاج (ʾisfanāj / ʾisfināj) and إِسْفَنَاخ / إِسْفِنَاخ (ʾisfanāḵ / ʾisfināḵ), which were popularized in Persian and Arabic, respectively (alternative forms with پ (p) are directly from Middle Iranian). The Old Iranian form would be *spināka-, *spinaka- (compare Kurdish sping), from the root *spin- (Northwestern Iranian), *sin- (Southwestern Iranian), ultimately from the Proto-Iranian *spai- (*spi-), from Proto-Indo-European *spei- (thorn-like) (*spi-), which are also reflected in Latin spina, Persian سنجد (senjed), Ossetian сындз (synʒ), синдзӕ (sinʒæ, thorn), Baluchi [script needed] (šinž), Central Iranian šeng, Kermani šank (thorn). Also akin to Semnani esbenāγa.

According to Cabolov, related to Northern Kurdish siping (meadow salsify, possibly also spinach) and Persian سپند (sipand, wild rue).

اسفناج

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

اسفناج (esfanâj, esfenâj) (plural اسفناج‌ها (esfanâj, esfenâj-hâ))

  1. spinach
    • 1258, Rumi, Masnavi, First Book
      من سپاناخ تو با هرچم پزی
      یا ترش‌با یا که شیرین می‌سزی
      man sepânâx to ba har čam pazi
      yâ torš-bâ yâ ke širin mi-sazi
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Descendants[edit]

Most are directly from Middle Iranian

References[edit]

  • "اسفناج" in Dehkhoda Dictionary.
  • Asatrian, Garnik S. (2011) A Comparative Vocabulary of Central Iranian Dialects[1] (in Persian and English), Tehran: Safir Ardehal Publications, pages 43–45
  • Steingass, Francis Joseph (1892), “اسپناج”, in A Comprehensive Persian–English dictionary, London: Routledge & K. Paul
  • Lokotsch, Karl (1927) Etymologisches Wörterbuch der europäischen Wörter orientalischen Ursprungs (in German), Heidelberg: Carl Winter’s Universitätsbuchhandlung, § 126, page 11
  • Cabolov, R. L. (2010), “siping”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ kurdskovo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Kurdish Language] (in Russian), volume II, Moscow: Russian Academy Press Vostochnaya Literatura, page 263
  • Redhouse, J. W. (1884), “spinach”, in A Lexicon, English and Turkish, 3rd edition, Constantinople: A. H. Boyajian, page 703
  • Redhouse, J. W.; Wells, Charles (1880), “spinach”, in Redhouse's Turkish Dictionary, in Two Parts, English and Turkish, and Turkish and English, 2nd edition, London: Bernard Quartch, 15 Piccadilly, page 306
  • Abajev, V. I. (1979) Istoriko-etimologičeskij slovarʹ osetinskovo jazyka [Historical-Etymological Dictionary of the Ossetian Language] (in Russian), volume III, Moscow, Leningrad: USSR Academy of Sciences, pages 201–202