क्षप्

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Sanskrit[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-Aryan *kṣap-, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *kšap-, from Proto-Indo-European *kʷsep- (night). Cognate with Hittite 𒅖𒉺𒀭𒍝 (ispanza), Avestan 𐬑𐬴𐬀𐬞𐬀𐬥 (xšapan), Old Persian 𐎧𐏁𐎱𐎺 (xšap-) (whence Persian شب (šab)).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Vedic) IPA(key): /kʂɐ́p/
  • (Classical) IPA(key): /kʂɐp/
  • Noun[edit]

    क्षप् (kṣápf

    1. night
      • c. 1700 BCE – 1200 BCE, Ṛgveda 1.79.06
        क्षपो राजन्नुत त्मनाग्ने वस्तोरुतोषसः।
        स तिग्मजम्भ रक्षसो दह प्रति॥
        kṣapo rājannuta tmanāgne vastorutoṣasaḥ.
        sa tigmajambha rakṣaso daha prati.
        O Agni, shining of thyself by night and when the morning breaks,
        Burn, thou whose teeth are sharp, against the Rākṣasas.
      Synonyms: नक्ति (nakti), रात्रि (rātri), रजनि (rajani)
    2. a measure of time equivalent to a whole day of twenty-four hours
    3. darkness
      • c. 1700 BCE – 1200 BCE, Ṛgveda 1.64.08
        सिंहा इव नानदति प्रचेतसः पिशा इव सुपिशो विश्ववेदसः।
        क्षपो जिन्वन्तः पृषतीभिरृष्टिभिः समित्सबाधः शवसाहिमन्यवः॥
        siṃhā iva nānadati pracetasaḥ piśā iva supiśo viśvavedasaḥ.
        kṣapo jinvantaḥ pṛṣatībhirṛṣṭibhiḥ samitsabādhaḥ śavasāhimanyavaḥ.
        Exceeding wise they roar like lions mightily, they, all-possessing, are beauteous as antelopes;
        Stirring the darkness with lances and spotted deer, combined as priests, with serpents' fury through their might.
    4. water