Ἄρης

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See also: Άρης and -άρης

Ancient Greek[edit]

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Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Usually derived from the Ionic word ἀρή (arḗ, bane, ruin)[1], which could be related to Sanskrit इरस्या (irasyā, malevolence), suggesting a Proto-Indo-European origin.[2]

However, Morris Silver and Pierre Chantraine propose a derivation from ἄρος (áros, use, profit, help) instead.[3]

𐀀𐀩 (a-re), found in Linear B, is thought to be the oldest attested form of the name.[4]

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Regularly short α in Homer and tragedy, but may be long, e.g. Il.5.31, Il.2.767, A.R.3.1187; and Aeschylus and Sophocles regularly use long α.

Proper noun[edit]

Ἄρης (Árēsm (genitive Ᾰ̓́ρεως); irregular declension

  1. (Greek mythology) Ares
  2. Mars (planet)
  3. war, warlike spirit
  4. epithet of Zeus, "avenger"

Inflection[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ares” in Douglas Harper, Online Etymology Dictionary, 2001–2017.
  2. ^ Ἄρης in William Smith et al., editor (1890) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: William Wayte. G. E. Marindin
  3. ^ 1992, Morris Silver, Taking ancient mythology economically, page 162; citing Pierre Chantraine's Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque
  4. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q., editors (1997) Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers

Further reading[edit]

  • Ἄρης in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • Ἄρης in Liddell & Scott (1889) An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • Ἄρης in Autenrieth, Georg (1891) A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges, New York: Harper and Brothers
  • Ἄρης in Bailly, Anatole (1935) Le Grand Bailly: Dictionnaire grec-français, Paris: Hachette
  • Ἄρης in Cunliffe, Richard J. (1924) A Lexicon of the Homeric Dialect: Expanded Edition, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, published 1963
  • Ἄρης in the Diccionario Griego–Español en línea (© 2006–2017)
  • Ἄρης in Slater, William J. (1969) Lexicon to Pindar, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter
  • Woodhouse, S. C. (1910) English–Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language[1], London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited, page 1,002
  • Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill