Ἄρης

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See also: Άρης and -άρης

Ancient Greek[edit]

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Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Usually derived from the Ionic word ἀρή(arḗ, bane, ruin)[1], which could be related to Sanskrit इरस्या(irasyā, malevolence), suggesting a Proto-Indo-European origin.[2]

However, Morris Silver and Pierre Chantraine propose a derivation from ἄρος(áros, use, profit, help) instead.[3]

𐀀𐀩(a-re)[script needed], found in Linear B, is thought to be the oldest attested form of the name.[4]

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Regularly short α in Homer and tragedy, but may be long, e.g. Il.5.31, Il.2.767, A.R.3.1187; and Aeschylus and Sophocles regularly use long α.

Proper noun[edit]

Ἄρης (Árēsm (genitive Ᾰ̓́ρεως); irregular declension

  1. (Greek mythology) Ares
  2. Mars (planet)
  3. war, warlike spirit
  4. epithet of Zeus, "avenger"

Inflection[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • Ἄρης in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • Ἄρης in Liddell & Scott (1889) An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • Ἄρης in Autenrieth, Georg (1891) A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges, New York: Harper and Brothers
  • «Ἄρης» in Bailly, Anatole (1935) Le Grand Bailly: Dictionnaire grec-français, Paris: Hachette
  • «Ἄρης» in Cunliffe, Richard J. (1924) A Lexicon of the Homeric Dialect: Expanded Edition, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, published 1963
  • «Ἄρης» in the Diccionario Griego–Español en línea (© 2006–2017)
  • Ἄρης in Slater, William J. (1969) Lexicon to Pindar, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter
  • Woodhouse, S. C. (1910) English-Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language[1], London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited, page 1,002
  • Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill
  1. ^ Ares”, in Douglas Harper, Online Etymology Dictionary, 2001–.
  2. ^ Smith, William, ed., A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: John Murray, 1878.
  3. ^ 1992, Morris Silver, Taking ancient mythology economically, page 162; citing Pierre Chantraine's Dictionnaire etymologique de la langue grecque
  4. ^ 1997, Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, edited by J. P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams, page 634