ἠώς

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See also: Ἠώς

Ancient Greek[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

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From Proto-Hellenic *auhṓs, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂éwsōs (dawn), which was also personified as a goddess of dawn in Proto-Indo-European religion, corresponding to Ancient Greek goddess Ἠώς (Ēṓs). Cognates include Latin Aurora/aurora, Sanskrit उषस् (uṣás, dawn; Ushas) and possibly Old English Ēostre and Old Armenian այգ (ayg), առաւաւտ (aṙawawt).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Noun[edit]

ἠώς (ēṓsf (genitive ἠοῦς); third declension (Epic, Ionic)

  1. The morning red, daybreak, dawn
  2. Dawn as a length of time: morning
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 8.66
      Ὄφρα μὲν ἠὼς ἦν καὶ ἀέξετο ῑ̔ερὸν ἦμαρ,
      Óphra mèn ēṑs ên kaì aéxeto hīeròn êmar,
      While the dawn lasted and the holy day grew,
    1. (accusative, ἠῶ) through the morning
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 2.434
        παννυχίη μέν ῥ᾽ ἥ γε καὶ ἠῶ πεῖρε κέλευθον.
        pannukhíē mén rh᾽ hḗ ge kaì ēô peîre kéleuthon.
        All night and through the morning [the ship] clove her way.
  3. A morning as a unit of time: day
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 1.493
      ἀλλ᾽ ὅτε δή ῥ᾽ ἐκ τοῖο δυωδεκάτη γένετ᾽ ἠώς,
      all᾽ hóte dḗ rh᾽ ek toîo duōdekátē génet᾽ ēṓs,
      But when the twelfth dawn since then had come,
  4. The direction of dawn, the East

Usage notes[edit]

Epic locative is ἠῶθι (ēôthi).

Inflection[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ἕως”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 492

Further reading[edit]

  • ἠώς in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • ἠώς in Liddell & Scott (1889) An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • ἠώς in Autenrieth, Georg (1891) A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges, New York: Harper and Brothers
  • ἠώς in Cunliffe, Richard J. (1924) A Lexicon of the Homeric Dialect: Expanded Edition, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, published 1963