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See also: ico, Ico, iĉo, iço, and -ico



Derived by analogy with the masculine suffix -ĉj- and the feminine suffixes -nj- and -ino.



  1. (neologism) of masculine sex[1]
    bovo ‎(a neat (bovine)) + ‎-iĉo → ‎boviĉo ‎(bull)
    japano ‎(a Japanese person) + ‎-iĉo → ‎japaniĉo ‎(Japanese man)

Usage notes[edit]

An unofficial neologism used in several proposed reforms of Esperanto. Derives the masculine form of a word, parallel to feminine -in-, for example:

bovo ‎(a head of cattle) → boviĉo ‎(bull) / bovino ‎(cow)

Resistance to the adoption of the suffix centers around concern that traditionally male roots (of which there a few dozen, primarily kin terms and titles) would become gender-neutral, for example:

patro ‎(parent (normally father)) → patriĉo ‎(father) / patrino ‎(mother)

Some authors, such as Georgo Kamaĉo, Luiz Portella, and Yoshito Usui, have published books using this suffix.

An official idiom to designate male animals is to form compounds after viro ‎(man), such as virbovo for bull (although unidiomatically, this could mean a minotaur). L.L. Zamenhof, the founder of Esperanto, began this usage in the 1920s with his translation of Genesis, and it is now widespread. To designate male members of a profession, it is common to use the adjective vira, such as vira kelnero for a male waiter.


  • -ino ‎(female)

See also[edit]

Wikipedia-logo.png Gender reform in Esperanto on Wikipedia.en.Wikipedia:Gender reform in Esperanto


  1. ^ Wennergren, Bertilo (2010-03-09), “IĈ°”, in Plena Manlibro de Esperanta Gramatiko[1] (in Esperanto), retrieved 2010-10-08