- (neologism) of masculine sex
An unofficial neologism used in several proposed reforms of Esperanto. Derives the masculine form of a word, parallel to feminine -in-, for example:
Resistance to the adoption of the suffix centers around concern that traditionally male roots (of which there a few dozen, primarily kin terms and titles) would become gender-neutral, for example:
Some authors, such as Georgo Kamaĉo, Luiz Portella, and Yoshito Usui, have published books using this suffix.
An official idiom to designate male animals is to form compounds after viro (“man”), such as virbovo for bull (although unidiomatically, this could mean a minotaur). L.L. Zamenhof, the founder of Esperanto, began this usage in the 1920s with his translation of Genesis, and it is now widespread. To designate male members of a profession, it is common to use the adjective vira, such as vira kelnero for a male waiter.
- -ino (“female”)