Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: itse and itse-



From Proto-Finnic *-ic'eC, consisting of the suffix *-icci plus an additional consonant. The additional consonant is only found in Finnish; the other Finnic languages have forms deriving from the vowel-final form. Cognate with Estonian -itsi, Karelian -ičči, Veps -iči.


  • IPA(key): /itseˣ/, [its̠e̞(ʔ)]



  1. by, through; the suffix of the prolative, determines the channel by which something takes place.
    meri (sea)meritse (by sea)
    sähköposti (email)sähköpostitse (by email)

Usage notes[edit]

Although commonly analysed synchronically as -tse added onto the plural stem of the word, in origin the suffix simply began with -i- (like -inen), and no plural stem was involved.

Some grammars treat the prolative not as a separate case because it seems not to occur in concorded form (an adjective in PROLATIVE + a noun in PROLATIVE); allegedly only with nouns in this form (e.g. postitse - by post; puhelimitse - by phone; etc.). However, there is one example which makes the prolative pass the concord test and therefore make the PROLATIVE a case:
Hän hoiti asian pitkitse kirjeitse. -- He took care of the matter with a long letter.

Derived terms[edit]