Appendix:Glossary of genetics
This is a glossary of genetics.
- A base, , found in certain glands and tissues, which pairs with thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA.
- One of a number of alternative forms of the same gene occupying a given position on a chromosome.
- A structure in the cell nucleus that contains DNA, histone protein, and other structural proteins.
- A sequence of three adjacent nucleotides, which encode for a specific amino acid during protein synthesis, or translation.
- Of a cell, having a pair of each type of chromosome, one of the pair is derived from the ovum and the other from the spermatozoon. See also haploid.
- Deoxyribonucleic acid, the genetic material of nearly all forms of life.
- Of an allele, determining the trait when paired with a recessive one.
- A reproductive cell (male (sperm) or female (egg)) that has only half the usual number of chromosomes.
- A unit of heredity; a segment of DNA or RNA that is transmitted from one generation to the next, and that carries genetic information such as the sequence of amino acids for a protein.
- gene pool
- The complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of a species or population.
- The complete DNA content of an organism, typically expressed in number of basepairs.
- The combination of alleles, situated on corresponding chromosomes, that determines a specific trait of an individual, such as "Aa" or "aa".
- A substance first obtained from guano; it is a nucleic base and pairs with cytosine in DNA and RNA.
- Of a cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes, such as a gamete. See also diploid.
- A diploid individual that has different alleles at one or more genetic loci.
- A diploid individual that has equal alleles at one or more genetic loci.
- Any heritable change in the base-pair sequence of genetic material, namely DNA (or RNA in the case of some viruses).
- nucleic acid
- Any acidic, chainlike biological macromolecule consisting of multiply repeat units of phosphoric acid, sugar and purine and pyrimidine bases.
- The base of a nucleic acid, which include thymine, uracil and adenine, cytosine and guanine.
- The monomer comprising DNA or RNA biopolymer molecules.
- The female gamete in animals; the egg.
- Of an allele, yielding to the choice made by the dominante alelle.
- The formation of genetic combinations in offspring that are not present in the parents.
- Ribonucleic acid.
- The reproductive cell or gamete of the male, carried in semen, that fertilizes the ovum to produce the zygote. Synonyms: sperm cell.
- One of the bases of RNA which pairs with adenine and is symbolised by U.
- A fertilized egg cell.