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This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Somewhat uncertain. Reconstructed by Ringe[1] as originating from earlier *-ajaną, from Proto-Indo-European *-oyéti (factitive verb suffix). The reconstruction of this Indo-European suffix is uncertain, but it would also be the origin of the Ancient Greek -όω (-óō) contracted verbs.




  1. Creates factitive verbs from adjectives, later also denominatives from nouns.


Derived terms[edit]


This suffix was no longer productive in any of the daughter languages, and in West Germanic it quickly became a relic class and mostly merged with the second weak class, except in Old High German where it was preserved longer. In Old High German and Gothic, the class of verbs formed by this suffix merged with the stative verbs in *-(i)janą, creating a single unified third weak class.

  • Old High German: -en
    • German: -en (merged with all other verbs)
  • Old Norse: -ja (only after short stems)
  • Gothic: -𐌰𐌽 (-ān)


  1. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press