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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *rɣwjaɣ  (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *k/r/s-wa, *rwa-s (Matisoff, STEDT); *r-wa (Benedict, 1972; Weidert, 1987)

The Chinese word family / / (to fall, to die, to rain) is said to represent a rare ST parallel stem *(r)we (Schuessler, 2007). Compare also (/*ɢʷən/, "cloud").

Confer Proto-Tai *kraːᴮ (gust (of rain)) (Thai ห่า (hàa), Lao ຮ່າ ()).



  1. rain


  • Old Chinese: (*C.ɢʷaʔ (B-S), *ɢʷaʔ (ZS), rain); (*ɢʷaʔ-s (B-S), *ɢʷas (ZS), to rain); (*ɢʷa (B-S), *ɢʷla (ZS), sacrifice with prayer and dance for rain)
    • Middle Chinese: (ɦɨoX, ɦɨoH), (ɦɨo)
      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (, /y²¹⁴/, "rain"), (, /y⁵¹/, "to rain (literary)"), (, /y³⁵/, "sacrifice with prayer and dance for rain")
      • Cantonese
        • Guangzhou: /jyː¹³/ ("rain"), /jyː²²/ ("to rain (literary)"), /jyː²¹/ ("sacrifice with prayer and dance for rain")
      • Wu
        • Shanghai: /ɦy²³/
    • Min
      • Min Nan
        • Taiwan: /hɔ³³/ (colloquial), /u⁵¹/ (literary)
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: ရွာ (rwa, (of rain) to fall)
      • Loloish
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (hxa, rain) (literary) (> ꂷꉐ (ma hxa, rain))