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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: ?
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *kyaŋ (Matisoff, STEDT)

There is perhaps a codaless variant, which may be an allofam or a product from the confusion with other species of Zingiberaceae (e.g. galangal); compare Tibetan སྒ ‎(sga) (whence སྒེའུ ‎(sge'u), སྒ་སྐྱ ‎(sga skya)) ~ ལྒ ‎(lga) ~ རྒ ‎(rga) ("ginger"), Japanese 生姜 ‎(shōga, ginger), Proto-Bahnaric (AA) *kjaː₁ ("ginger"), Thai ข่า ‎(kha, galangal), Lao ຂ່າ ‎(khā, galangal).

It's unknown how this relates to

  • Proto-Vietic *s-gəːŋ / s-kəːŋ ("ginger")
    > Vietnamese gừng / gầng
  • Proto-Hmongic *qʰinᴮ ("ginger")
    > White Hmong qhiav
  • Proto-Mienic *kʰjuŋᴬ ("ginger") (possibly a Chinese loan)
  • Proto-Tai *χiːŋᴬ ("ginger")
    > Thai ขิง ‎(kǐng), Lao ຂີງ ‎(khīng), Shan ၶိင်
  • and Khmer ខ្ញី ‎(kɲəj, ginger).
[1] Ginger, root of Zingiber officinale.



  1. ginger


  • Old Chinese: /*kaŋ/ (B-S; ZS) ("ginger")
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese