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From one of the languages spoken in the Caucasus where the people reside; see Russian боша (boša), Armenian բոշա (boša), Georgian ბოშა (boša), Turkish and Azerbaijani Poşa, Boşa.

Proper noun[edit]


  1. (sometimes offensive) The Lom, a nomadic people related to the Rom and Dom, with origins in India, who reside in the South Caucasus; Caucasian Gypsies.
    • 1988, in Languages and Cultures: Studies in Honor of Edgar C. Polomé, edited by Mohammad Ali Jazayery and Werner Winter, page 199:
      The Bosha are Central Gypsy (Lomavren) speakers (Patkanoff 1908-1909; le Redžosko 1984); but what is noteworthy is the presence of two Romani (i.e., European or Western) Gypsy-speaking populations in the Middle East: the Ghagar in Egypt (Sampson 1928; Hanna 1982), and the Zagari in Iran (Windfugr 1970).

Usage notes[edit]

In Armenian, this exonym carries negative connotations such as "constantly begging", "impudent" and "shameless",[1] and the Lom people find its use offensive.[2] The people's autonym, Lom, may be used instead.



  1. ^ 2002, in Anthropology & archeology of Eurasia: Volumes 41-42, page 23: "Although "Bosha" and "Tsygan" [Gypsy] imply diametrically opposite concepts in Gyumri (the former is constantly begging, while the second will never give anything no matter how much you beg), they are found in one and the same semantic space. [] the definition of an Armenian respondent from the village of Dzhraber (Armenia) seems extremely typical: 'a Bosha is an impudent person who has lost all sense of shame — a biznesmen.'"
  2. ^ 2002, in Anthropology & archeology of Eurasia: Volumes 41-42, page 20: "The word "Gnchu" as an ethnonym to designate all Gypsies came into regular use in the nineteenth century, when the first research about Armenian Gypsies appeared. However, it never entered broad usage in Armenia and is not used as a name for "Armenian Gypsies." This term is no more acceptable to the Armenian Gypsies than the term "Bosha," and its widespread usage would offend then, inasmuch as it would draw a dividing line between them and the Armenians once and for all."