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A variant of the Wade-Giles romanization (Man³-chou¹-kuo²) of Mandarin 滿洲國 (Mǎnzhōuguó), from Japanese 満州国 (Manshūkoku), under influence from Manchu and Mandarin 滿族 (Mǎnzú) + (guó).


  • IPA(key): /mænˈt͡ʃʊəkuːəʊ/

Proper noun[edit]


  1. (historical) A puppet state of Imperial Japan, existing from 1932 to 1945, conceived as a Manchu nation-state under the restored Qing dynasty.
    • 1941 December 9, Franklin Roosevelt, Fireside Chat 19: On the War with Japan[1], US National Archives, archived from the original on 9 July 2015, 3:23 from the start:
      In 1931, ten years ago, Japan invaded Manchukuo—without warning.
    • 1982 September 5, “Monument protest”, in Free China Weekly[2], volume XXIII, number 35, Taipei, ISSN 0016-0318, OCLC 1786626, page 1:
      A group of Japanese is planning to build a monument at the foot of Mount Fuji in Japan to commemorate the establishment of Manchukuo, a puppet regime set up by the Japanese imperialists in 1932 to prepare for the invasion of China.
    • 2018, Noam Chomsky, Yugoslavia: Peace, War, and Dissolution[3], PM Press, →ISBN, LCCN 2017942916, OCLC 981991366, OL 26952035M, page [4]:
      We might ask finally whether humanitarian intervention even exists. There is no shortage of evidence that it does. The evidence falls into two categories. The first is declarations of leaders. It is all too easy to demonstrate that virtually every resort to force is justified by elevated rhetoric about noble humanitarian intentions. Japanese counterinsurgency documents eloquently proclaim Japans intention to create an “earthly paradise” in independent Manchukuo and North China, where Japan is selflessly sacrificing blood and treasure to defend the population from the “Chinese bandits” who terrorize them.