Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/ubilaz

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This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Germanic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Proto-Celtic *uɸelos (bad, evil),[1] but the source is disputed.[2] Possibly either:

  • From Proto-Indo-European *h₂upélos, from a root *h₂wep(h₁)- (bad, evil) + *-elo-, thereby cognate with Hittite 𒄷𒉿𒀊𒍣 (huwapp-i, to mistreat, harass), 𒄷𒉿𒀊𒉺𒀸 (huwappa-, evil, badness).[3] Kroonen doubts the comparison to Hittite on the grounds that the Hittite verb preserves an earlier meaning “to throw/cast away” and so the semantic development to “evil” was probably post-PIE.[2]
  • From Proto-Indo-European *upélos (evil, literally going over or beyond (acceptable limits)), from *upó, *up (down, up, over), thus it would be equivalent to *ub (under) +‎ *-ilaz. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

*ubilaz (adverb *wirsiz, comparative *wirsizô, superlative *wirsistaz)[2]

  1. evil, bad

Inflection[edit]


Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*ufelo-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 396
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*ubila-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 557
  3. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 369–372